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Importance of Iodine

Importance of IodineIodine (I) is essential, which clearly means we need it. Just as we need zinc or magnesium, we need I. The common iodine deficiency disorders include goiter, hypothyroidism, mental retardation, reproductive impairment, and decreased child survival; however that short group is only the beginning of health problems with a lack of iodine. The recent meltdown of the nuclear power stations in Japan may have highlighted the urgent need for Iodine, but even though the threat has passed, the health requirement for I has not diminished. It’s even more important than we have been led to believe.

David Derry MD PhD, “Fibrocystic disease of the breast consists of small or large, sometimes painful lumps in women’s breasts. It varies in the way it shows—not only in different women, but also because it changes from month to month in the same women. Medical doctors generally believe that fibrocystic disease results from the excess number of cells that grow in the breast during the menstrual cycle from the hormonal stimulation.

“Since the number of cells increases in the breast during the cycle, some of the cells have to be removed to restore the normal condition each month. Iodine is the trigger mechanism that causes excess cells to disappear to complete this normal process of cell death. Without enough iodine, the extra cells that develop during the menstrual cycle due to the hormonal stimulation do not resolve back to the normal breast architecture. These leftover cells build up over repeated cycles and cause the lumps, soreness, and larger lesions of fibrocystic disease.

“However, while about 90 percent of North American women have fibrocystic disease, about 40 percent of these women experience no symptoms. Their breasts may be normal to examination, but at that point the disease may be only microscopically detectable with a biopsy.

“Enough iodine enables the excess cells to be cleared out, and the breast to return to its normal resting state; the fibrocystic disease has slowly disappeared from the breast.

Nobel Laureate Albert Szent Györgyi, the physician who discovered Vitamin C in 1928, commented: “When I was a medical student, iodine in the form of KI (potassium iodide) was the universal medicine. Nobody knew what it did, but it did something and did something good. We students used to sum up the situation in this little rhyme:

If ye don’t know where, what, and why
prescribe ye then K and I”.

“Iodine remains the perfect antiseptic with the least side effects of all time. As a perfect antiseptic killing all single-celled organisms, there has to be a common mechanism of a single element like iodine.

“This is part of a general thesis that both iodine and thyroid hormone act as a team to provide a constant surveillance against abnormal cell development, including carcinogenic chemicals that can spread cancer cells within the body.

“Iodine appears to have several more roles in the body. Iodine protects against abnormal growth of bacteria in the stomach (helicobacter pylori is the most clinically significant). Iodine can coat incoming allergic proteins to make them non-allergic; It also deactivates all biological and most chemical poisons in the stomach.

“”I propose that…iodine and thyroid hormones act as a team to provide a constant surveillance against abnormal cell development and the spread of cancer cells within the body including chemicals that are carcinogenic” writes Dr. Derry, who, in addition to holding an MD, also has a PhD in neurochemistry and is a former University of Toronto Medical Research Council Scholar.  “Cancer grows so slowly when using iodine and thyroid hormone therapy that the cancer will not affect the lives of the patients who have it. The treatment is non-invasive, inexpensive and safe.”

Dr.  Derry also credits iodine with several other roles in the body: It protects against abnormal growth of bacteria in the stomach.  It detoxifies chemicals, food poisoning, snake venom, etc. It coats incoming allergic proteins to make them non-allergic, and probably defuses autoimmune disease mechanisms in the same way.

How much iodine is enough? It has been shown that daily doses of iodine above two to three milligrams per day (about half a drop of Lugols from a standard eyedropper) saturate the thyroid within a couple of weeks. At this point, the thyroid gland stops taking up iodine. This means that at a dietary intake above two to three milligrams, all of the iodine goes to all its other functions in the body, such as killing off abnormal cells.

BodyBio has been marketing Iodine for ~10 years, but after extensive testing has added a Liquid Iodine Taste Testing Kit to its famous Liquid Mineral line. This is the absolute best way to take Iodine safely (or any essential mineral) — taste it first. Use your own taste buds to see if you even need it to begin with. We do that for all the trace minerals (which we desperately need) and guess what – Iodine, if anything, is another essential mineral. There’s no reason that we should not rely on our sense of taste for Iodine just as we have for them all.

Dr Derry suggests about half a drop of Lugols solution. That’s equivalent to ~36 drops of BodyBio Iodine (~2.4 mgs of potassium iodide), very close to a ½ drop of Lugol’s. Why reinvent the wheel, follow the expert’s advice as suggested in Dr. Derry’s book; available on Amazon “Breast Cancer and Iodine: How to Prevent and How to Survive Breast Cancer”.

BOOK-BreastCancer-IodinewebAny good Iodine supplement such as  Lugols®, Iodoral®, or BodyBio Iodine # 9, will suffice. However, BodyBio alone guides you to recognize when you have filled up your Iodine stores, when you have enough. Simply by putting 36 drops of BodyBio Iodine in 8 ounces of filtered water you have created your personal testing solution. Just a taste of the solution is enough to guide you. If it has a pleasant taste (hmm good), or, if there is no taste (plain water) – you need it. If the taste is strong or disturbing – do not take it. It does not get any simpler.  http://www.bodybio.com/BodyBio/docs/BodyBioBulletin-LiquidMinerals.pdf.

You can now fill up your Iodine bucket (or any of the essential minerals that we require). If it’s low (most everyone will be), take 36 drops per day and add that into your daily mineral drink. Please check your taste response often, at least weekly, to avoid taking an excess of I or any mineral you do not need. This is too important to put off. Call BodyBio at 888 320 8338 and order the New BodyBio Iodine Test Kit – do it today.   

iodine-samples

*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

Vitamins? Why?

vitaminsDo you take vitamins? Yes? Why? No? Why not?  Confusing, isn’t it? Can we ever get to the bottom of the yes-no controversy?

First of all, let’s find out what we’re talking about.

The word “vitamins” describes organic substances that are quite diverse in function and structure.  It was initially felt that these compounds could be obtained through a normal diet, and that they were capable of promoting growth and development, and of maintaining life.  The word itself was coined by a Polish biochemist named Casimir Funk, in 1911.  He deemed these substances to be chemical amines, thinking that all contained a nitrogen atom.  Since they were considered to be vital to existence (“vita” means “life” in Latin), they were called “vitamines.”  After it was discovered that they all did not have a nitrogen atom, and, therefore, were not amines, the terminal “e” was dropped.  Funk was working in London at the time, at the Lister Institute, where he isolated a substance without which chickens would suffer neurological inflammation.

The lettered names of the vitamins were ascribed to them in the order of their discovery.  Vitamin K, however, is the exception.  Its label was given by the Danish researcher Henrik Dam, from the word “koagulation.”

If a vitamin is improperly absorbed, or is absent from the diet, a deficiency exists and a specific disease may surface, such as Beriberi, which was noted by William Fletcher in 1905 when symptoms appeared in populations whose diet consisted mostly of polished rice, lacking the thiamine-rich husk.  Lack of thiamine, or vitamin B1, causes emotional disturbances, physical weakness, heart failure, impaired sensory perception, and, in severe circumstances, eventual death.

Scurvy, a deficiency of vitamin C, was once a common ailment of sailors and others who were out to sea for a longer time than their fruits and vegetables could remain edible.  The Latin name of this condition that caused bleeding from the mucus membranes and spongy gums is “scorbutus,” from which we get “ascorbic acid.”  James Lind, a surgeon in the Royal Navy, learned in the 1750s that scurvy could be treated with citrus fruits, and he wrote about his experiments in his 1753 book, “A Treatise of the Scurvy.”

If vitamins are so “vital,” what, exactly, are their roles in human health and well-being?  Vitamin A was first synthesized in 1947, though discovered around 1912 by researchers Elmer McCollum and M. Davis, and later isolated from butter by Yale scientists Thomas Osborne and Lafayette Mendel.  This nutrient contains carotene compounds that are responsible for transmitting light signals to the retina of the eye.  McCollum also uncovered the B vitamins, but later researchers isolated each of the individual factors.

We already know that a lack of B1 causes Beriberi, while a deficiency of B2 may lead to inflammation of the lining of the mouth.  Also called riboflavin, B2 is responsible for the reactions of enzymes, as is its partner, B3 (niacin).  In general, the gamut of B vitamins is involved in the same metabolic processes.  It was decided that a B vitamin must meet specific criteria:  it must be water-soluble, must be essential for all cells, and must function as a coenzyme.  B12 and folate have the added responsibility of being involved in the synthesis of nucleic acid.  Folate is the form of the nutrient naturally found in food, while folic acid is synthetic. Great excesses of one B vitamin can cause deficiencies of the others.  Therefore, if taken as supplements, it is recommended that they be taken together.

Besides preventing scurvy, as mentioned, vitamin C helps the body to make collagen, the protein that acts as the framework for the body.  Collagen is a major component of ligaments and cartilage, it strengthens blood vessels, and it is responsible for skin strength and elasticity.  Vitamin C was the first to be artificially made, in 1935.

Vitamin D is not actually a vitamin, but a prohormone, meaning that it is a precursor to a hormone, called 1,25-D, which helps the body to make its own steroids, such as cholesterol, a substance absolutely necessary to the integrity of each of our trillions of cells.  Vitamin D is needed to maintain correct calcium and phosphorus levels, to assure proper bone mineralization, and to support the immune system.  A severe deficiency leads to rickets, a softening of the bones—usually in children—that was studied in 1922 by Edward Mellanby.

Vitamin E is actually a group of isomers (like-structured molecules) that function as antioxidants.  Study of this fat-soluble nutrient has focused on its purported benefits to the cardiovascular system. University of California researchers discovered vitamin E while studying green, leafy vegetables, in the 1920s.

Another fat-soluble substance, vitamin K is used by the body to assist in the manufacture of bone, and in the manufacture of blood clotting proteins, without which serious bleeding episodes may occur.  This nutrient has been available from green leafy vegetables and from the brassica family, such as broccoli, cauliflower, and kale.

Now the question is, “Can we get all these nutrients from our food, or is supplementation necessary?”

Working at the University of Texas Biochemical Institute, Dr. Donald Davis led a crop-nutrient study in 2004.  He and his team found that the nutrient value of forty-three garden crops has declined considerably over the past fifty years.  As reported in the “Journal of the American College of Nutrition” in December of that year, the forty-three crops showed “statistically reliable declines” in protein, calcium, iron, phosphorus, riboflavin (vitamin B2), and ascorbic acid (vitamin C).  Some nutrients could not be compared because their values were not reported in the 1950s.  They include magnesium, zinc, vitamin B6, vitamin E, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals.

After accounting for possible confounders, the study concluded that the change in nutrient value could be ascribed to changes in cultivated varieties, in which there could have been a trade-off between crop yield and nutrient value.  Dr. Davis added that farmers are paid by the weight of a crop, not by its food value.

Some innovative farming techniques have given rise to faster-growing crops, which, by virtue of their seed-to-market time, do not have sufficient time to develop their nutrients.  They do not have the chance to absorb everything they need from the soil.

Crop rotation has fallen into disfavor by some farms because it requires more planning and management skills than are at hand, thus increasing the complexity of farming.  Rotation of crops helps to reduce insect and disease problems, improves soil fertility, reduces soil erosion, and limits biocide carryover.  If, however, a single crop is a big moneymaker for the farm, why should it bother even to try to grow something else?  Why bother to rotate crops when chemical fertilizers, herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides can help to guarantee a bumper crop?  Could nutrient value be affected by using these artificial chemicals?  Do these materials come into our bodies?  Do we have the proper kinds and amounts of nutrients to detoxify them?  Maybe we do; maybe not.

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen to organic nitrogen, thus contributing to the food value of the crop.  Certain crops, like the legumes, are better than others at replacing nitrogen lost from the soil.  Nitrogen is part of a protein molecule.  Without nitrogen there is no protein.  While it is beneficial to the food and the soil to plant a legume following the harvest of a more lucrative planting, it is not often done.

Therefore, the same plant in place continues to withdraw the same minerals repeatedly, year after year, with little chance for replenishment except by chemical means, if at all.  How many of us would prefer to get our dietary needs from unnatural sources, like iron from rusted nails, or zinc from galvanized wire?

In a study of peaches and pears published in the “Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry” in 2002, Marina Carbonaro, of the National Institute for Nutrition Studies, in Rome, reported a difference in the nutrition content of organic versus traditionally raised fruits.  Amounts of polyphenols, citric and ascorbic acids, and alpha-tocopherol were increased in the organically grown crops.  She and her colleagues concluded that the improved antioxidant defense of the plants developed as a result of organic cultivation methods.  Which do you think has more vitamin C?

Here is a sampling of how the nutrient content of broccoli and potatoes sold in Canada has changed from 1951 to 1999.  This information was compiled by Jeffrey Christian.

Broccoli, Raw, 3 spears, 93g. 100/93=1.08
Calcium (mg) Iron
(mg)
Vitamin A (I.U.) Vitamin C (mg) Thiamine (mg) Riboflavin (mg) Niacin (mg)
1951 130.00 1.30 3500 104.0 0.10 0.21 1.10
1972 87.78 0.78 2500 90.0 0.09 0.20 0.78
1999 48.30 0.86 1542 93.5 0.06 0.12 1.07
% Change -62.85 -33.85 -55.94 -10.10 -40.00 -42.86 -2.73
Potatoes, one potato, peeled before boiling, 136g. 100/136=.74
Calcium (mg) Iron
(mg)
Vitamin A (I.U.) Vitamin C (mg) Thiamine (mg) Riboflavin (mg) Niacin (mg)
1951 11.00 0.70 20.00 17.00 0.11 0.04 1.20
1972 5.74 0.49 0.00 16.39 0.09 0.03 1.15
1999 7.97 0.30 0.00 7.25 0.09 0.02 1.74

The USDA, in its statistical bulletin # 978, made public in June, 2002, titled “The Changing Landscape of U. S. Milk Production,” admitted that milk production has increased because of “advances in animal nutrition and health, improved artificial breeding techniques, and the recent addition of biotechnology, such as…rbST…”
rbST is a hormone that is administered to cows to increase milk production.  Take a look at how milk production has changed, and then decide if there might be implications that could involve humans.

In 1950, a single cow (I mean one cow, not an unmarried cow.) produced 5,314 pounds of milk.  By 1975, she increased her output to 10,360 pounds.  In 2000, that amount increased to 18,204 pounds.  The USDA admits that “…a 76-percent increase in milk per cow since 1975 is substantial.”  Substantial?  How about phenomenal, even miraculous?  Could a factory have increased its output by seventy-five percent in twenty-five years?  Could a weight lifter elevate that much of a weight increase in a military press as he did twenty-five years ago?  Could recombinant bovine somatotropin enter the milk supply and affect human growth and development, or even contribute to human misery?

Not only do modern agricultural techniques affect the quality of food, but also do the processes by which food is processed and packaged.  To prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria, some canned foods are exposed to temperatures that compromise their nutritional value.  Acidic foods, like tomatoes, are excused from excessive heat because their nature does not support the growth of food poisoning bacteria.  Others are heated to temperatures high enough to destroy bacteria, yeasts, and molds that could cause foods to spoil.  Heating to 250 degrees Fahrenheit for three minutes not only kills pathogens, but also denigrates the potency of water-soluble vitamins.  If these foods are consumed without also consuming the water in which they are prepared, nutrition is sacrificed.

The USDA has a table of nutrient retention factors that compare the nutritional value of processed foods.  This table includes most nutrients from alpha-tocopherol to zinc.  It is noted that folate, for example, a nutrient easily lost in food preservation and preparation, is diminished by almost 50% in canned fruits as compared to fresh and frozen.  Additionally, canned foods are higher in sodium, and their texture is softer than either fresh or frozen.  The mineral and protein values of canned foods are usually undisturbed.  In rare instances, as with tomatoes and pumpkin, nutrient value is retained, or even increased, by canning.  We should note that canned fruits and vegetables are better than none at all.

Frozen foods, on the other hand, retain much of the nutrition they are destined to have.  The folate retention factor for frozen fruits is ninety-five, contrasted to fifty for canned.  There are some compromises, though, because frozen foods need to be blanched prior to being frozen.  Blanching, however, is no worse than what happens to foods during normal cooking activity.  This means that frozen vegetables provide levels of nutrition similar to fresh, provided they are stored and handled properly.  The “International Journal of Food Science and Technology,” reported in June of 2007 that the freezing process alone does not affect vitamin levels, but that the initial processing and later storage do.  About 25% of vitamin C and a higher percentage of folate are lost through the blanching process.  These numbers will vary according to the processing techniques.

An advantage to canned and frozen foods is that the foods themselves are harvested at their maximum stage of development, containing all the vitamins and minerals they could possibly extract from their environments.  What we call “fresh” vegetables are usually anything but.  They have been picked before their maximum ripeness so that they can be shipped across the country.  If not harvested locally, “fresh” vegetables are more accurately labeled as “raw,” or “unprocessed.”  Water-soluble vitamins, like the B complex and vitamin C, are affected by exposure to light and air.  Vitamin A is jeopardized by exposure to light, as well.  The amount of time that a raw vegetable spends in storage may take its toll on nutrient integrity, also.

Typical Maximum Nutrient Losses (as compared to raw food)
Vitamins Freeze Dry Cook Cook+Drain Reheat
Vitamin A 5% 50% 25% 35% 10%
  Retinol Activity Equivalent 5% 50% 25% 35% 10%
  Alpha Carotene 5% 50% 25% 35% 10%
  Beta Carotene 5% 50% 25% 35% 10%
  Beta Cryptoxanthin 5% 50% 25% 35% 10%
  Lycopene 5% 50% 25% 35% 10%
  Lutein+Zeaxanthin 5% 50% 25% 35% 10%
Vitamin C 30% 80% 50% 75% 50%
Thiamin 5% 30% 55% 70% 40%
Riboflavin 0% 10% 25% 45% 5%
Niacin 0% 10% 40% 55% 5%
Vitamin B6 0% 10% 50% 65% 45%
Folate 5% 50% 70% 75% 30%
  Food Folate 5% 50% 70% 75% 30%
  Folic Acid 5% 50% 70% 75% 30%
Vitamin B12 0% 0% 45% 50% 45%
Minerals Freeze Dry Cook Cook+Drain Reheat
Calcium 5% 0% 20% 25% 0%
Iron 0% 0% 35% 40% 0%
Magnesium 0% 0% 25% 40% 0%
Phosphorus 0% 0% 25% 35% 0%
Potassium 10% 0% 30% 70% 0%
Sodium 0% 0% 25% 55% 0%
Zinc 0% 0% 25% 25% 0%
Copper 10% 0% 40% 45% 0%

Can we get all the vitamins and minerals we need from food?  No.

Take a look at vitamin C, one of the most-studied nutrients.  Because of its fragile nature, vitamin C, a popular water-soluble supplement, needs special handling.  This characteristic may explain why it seems to have been a major focus of the food business for years.  It is extremely sensitive to heat, and slightly less so to light, and time.  Loss of vitamin C during processing ranges from about 10% in beets to almost 90% in carrots.  The amount of vitamin C at the start has no bearing on the outcome.  It’s the percentage that makes the matter a real concern.  Since this vitamin is easily oxidized, it is difficult to measure levels in drained liquids.  That goes for the cooking water, as well.  Canned foods are further insulted by cooking at high temperatures for a long time, without a lid.  It is nutritionally prudent to include the water from the can in the meal.  Otherwise, the ascorbic acid goes down the drain.  The table below demonstrates changes in vitamin C levels resulting from canning alone.

Ascorbic acid (g / kg−1 wet weight) in fresh and canned vegetables
Commodity Fresh Canned % Loss
Broccoli 1.12 0.18 84
Corn 0.042 0.032 0.25
Carrots 0.041 0.005 88
Green peas 0.40 0.096 73
Spinach 0.281 0.143 62
Green beans 0.163 0.048 63
Beets 0.148 0.132 10
J Sci Food Agric 87:930–944 (2007) Nutritional comparison of fresh, frozen and canned fruits and vegetables. Part 1. Vitamins C and B and phenolic compounds. Joy C Rickman, Diane M Barrett and Christine M Bruhn

 Freezing has less impact on nutrient levels than other types of processing. Because foods are harvested at their maximum maturity stage before freezing, they already contain the most nutritive value they can be expected to have. The table that follows shows losses of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) after periods of storage at various temperatures, starting at room temperature (20° C; 68° F), through the refrigerator crisper drawer (4° C; 39° F), to the freezer (-20° C; -4° F).

Losses of ascorbic acid (% dry weight) due to fresh and frozen storage
Commodity Fresh, 20 ◦C,
7 Days
Fresh, 4 ◦C,
7 Days
Frozen, −20 ◦C,
12 Months
Broccoli 56 0 10
Carrots 27 10
Green beans 55 77 20
Green peas 60 15 10
Spinach 100 75 30
J Sci Food Agric 87:930–944 (2007) Nutritional comparison of fresh, frozen and canned fruits and vegetables. Part 1. Vitamins C and B and phenolic compounds. Joy C Rickman, Diane M Barrett and Christine M Bruhn

Vitamin C does continue to degrade after long periods of freezing, but at a slower rate. What seems to be the main factor in this process is the moisture content of the food at the outset. Notice that refrigerating foods as soon as they come home from the market plays a serious role in maintaining nutritive value. The cook is the penultimate figure in the saga of a food’s life. The method of cooking can cause loss of ascorbic acid at the rate of 15% to 55%. Losses in canned products are probably minimal because the food already sits in water. Oddly, unheated canned products are occasionally comparable to that which is cooked fresh. But who has the wherewithal to determine that at home? Remember that, because vitamin C oxidizes in air, the value of frozen foods may be substantially higher than fresh foods that have been stored for a long time or under sub-optimal conditions. So…fresh (raw) may not always be the best. Whatever the case, additional research is expected to substantiate changes in vitamin C levels caused by cooking habits. Microwaving, for example, may have an unexpected influence, based on the solubility and diffusion of certain food solids, such as sugars that may diminish faster than ascorbic acid, leaving vitamin C behind.

It is necessary to realize that carrots are not exactly heralded for their vitamin C value in the first place, so losses are relatively insignificant. Also, note that sources of information may present nonconcurring results due to variations in measurement techniques, quality of raw ingredients, and other variables.

The water-soluble B vitamins (all are water-soluble) suffer a fate similar to that of ascorbic acid. Thiamin, the least stable of the vitamins to thermal indignity, is most sensitive to degradation caused by food processing. But, since fruits and vegetables are not exceptional sources of this nutrient, its retention or loss does not represent overall nutrient retention or loss of a particular food. Riboflavin is unstable in the presence of light. Processing and storage / display play a role in its stability. Clear glass containers can cause this vitamin to dwindle. Realization of this fact by the food industry is one reason that certain foods are now in opaque containers. The exception to the B-vitamin family is vitamin B12 because it is found mostly in animal products. The same considerations that apply to vitamin C are appropriate for the B vitamins.

The normal eating habits of Americans suggest that we are woefully inadequate in meeting dietary recommendations to achieve optimum well-being and health.  Most of us do not eat the recommended number of daily servings of fruits and vegetables.  For some nutrients, daily intake needs may be higher for some populations than for others, especially those in particularly vulnerable groups, such as those with gastrointestinal problems or poor absorption, those who are chronically ill, those who are alcohol or drug dependent, and the elderly.

The June 19, 2002 edition of the “Journal of the American Medical Association” recanted that august body’s negative position on vitamin supplements when it advised all adults to take at least one multivitamin tablet a day.  The article, “Vitamins for Chronic Disease Prevention in Adults,” authored by Robert H. Fletcher, MD, MSc, and others, agreed that suboptimal levels of folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, neural tube defects, and colon and breast cancers.  It added that risks for other chronic diseases are increased by low levels of the antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E.

Because it is accepted that high homocysteine levels are associated with increased risk of heart disease, the AMA’s recommendation for optimal levels of cardio-specific supplements are well founded.

Depending on a person’s physiological state, he or she may need more of a particular nutrient than is available from a multivitamin alone.  The bioavailability of a specific nutrient from a high quality supplement is close to one hundred percent, compared to a food whose life experiences might have been less than ideal.  In a society that falls short of consuming the five to nine servings of fruits and vegetables that are recommended, it would be inane to ask them to eat more fruits and vegetables to get the nutrients they lack.

This does not mean that a person should take a little of this and a little of that because he read about it somewhere.  On the contrary, supplementation with vitamins, minerals, and herbs is a scientific enterprise that entails one’s medical history, both distant and recent past, one’s current physiological state, and even one’s blood chemistry.

Do you take vitamins?

*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

ADHD and Magnesium

Magnesium deficiencyMagnesium deficiency has been reported in children with ADHD syndrome.  Signs of this malady include hyperactivity, hypermotivity with aggressiveness, and lack of attention, especially at school.  Biochemical and concurrent behavioral improvements have been realized by magnesium therapy in association with vitamin B6 supplementation.

An analysis of eighteen different study groups performed by Marianne Moussain-Bosc and her colleagues at a French institute for nervous system studies in 2006 indicated that ,”…B6/magnesium therapy benefits about half of autistic children,” but also noted that a related study showed benefits to those with ADHD, using the same doses of each supplement.  Children ranging from one to ten years of age “…received 0.6 milligrams per kilogram per day of vitamin B6 and 6 milligrams per kilogram per day of magnesium.  Treatment lasted an average of eight months.”  (Moussain-Bosc. 2006)   Both groups of children had significantly lower values of erythrocyte magnesium at the outset than the control group(s).  It was observed that after two months of the vitamin-mineral regimen there was a substantial change in clinical symptoms.

ADD and ADHD are on the upswing, and have been for some time.  Both conditions are hastily treated with drugs, often without a differential diagnosis, which is essentially a process of elimination.  Instead, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders criteria, and a series of observations and teacher questionnaires are employed.  (Pediatrics. 2000. No authors listed.)   Mineral and electrolyte imbalances are awfully hard to discover with that technique, don’t you think? Most parents wince at the thought of dosing their kids with “miracle” substances that have unknown long-term side effects. On the other hand, the clueless, self-centered, entitled faction applauds the quiet, calm, relatively immobile zombie of the house.

Although we live in plentiful times, where food, shelter, and clothing are accessible to all who earn them, there still exist children who are seriously shy of their required magnesium stores.  One reason is stress.  The number of stressors to which kids are exposed grows every year.  From sports practice, to violence in the streets and on television, to academic obligations, to peer pressure and self-image, and more, the kids are overloaded.  It’s the accompanying flood of adrenaline that siphons magnesium, since that hormone needs the mineral for its release.  Another reason is poor nutrition.  You know, processed foods, refined sugars, colorful and flavorful additives, artificial this and that…  This kind of diet is notoriously low in magnesium, which is calming to the nervous system.  The refined sugars and additives actually stress the body, especially the nervous system, as it tries to overcome the onslaught.  A double whammy.

In Poland, researchers studied ADHD children and assessed the value of magnesium supplementation on the DSM parameters, finding that six months of taking as little as 200 mg a day yielded a decrease in symptoms.  (Starobrat-Hermelin. 1997)  Later study performed by Moussain-Bosc saw a decrease in ADHD symptoms using a combined magnesium / B6 regimen in several dozens of children with low red blood cell magnesium stores.  (Moussain-Bosc. 2004)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a developmental perturbation characterized by attention problems and hyperactive behavior.  It’s the most commonly studied psychiatric disorder in children, affecting three to five percent of children worldwide.  Sadly, integrative therapies are spurned by traditional-minded doctors, so parents have taken it upon themselves to intervene, despite the lack of support from their physicians.

Bearing in mind that sugar has a nutrient-diluting effect might make a difference in ADHD management and magnesium stores in the body.  It’s normal to wonder where all the magnesium goes.  Doesn’t it stay still?  After all, it’s part of bone.  That’s true, but magnesium is also an electrolyte, helping to send calming electrical messages across the membrane of each cell, making it a natural calcium channel blocker.  It gets used up in the manufacture of more than three hundred enzymes the body needs, including those that make anti-inflammatory chemicals from fatty acids.  Situations and conditions within the body can push this mineral into the urine and then into the toilet.  Sugar intake, and even that of simple carbohydrates, increases the secretion of insulin by the pancreas.   Increased insulin, as might be found in insulin resistance, pushes magnesium out.  (Huerta. 2005)  The pancreas needs magnesium to make its other secretions, including those that break down proteins (trypsin and chymotripsin) and fats (lipase), as well as carbohydrates.  Carol Ballew and her colleagues found that carbonated beverages, namely soda, are negatively associated with magnesium levels This starts a vicious cycle because low magnesium is related to insulin resistance. (Ballew. 2000).

In tests done in the mid 90’s, it was discovered that elevated insulin levels result in increased magnesium excretion.  These researchers noted this as the explanation to the magnesium deficit that accompanies obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, as well as hyperinsulinemia.  (Djurhuus. 1995)  This same group later reported that high glucose levels, such as would come from a sugary breakfast or a plethora of sweet goodies, raise magnesium excretion by a factor greater than 2.0.  (Djurhuus. 2000)

The foods that once supplied dietary magnesium have become compromised by careless farming, harvesting, processing, storage, and handling practices.  We now get more calcium and less magnesium than ever in the history of mankind.  Sugar erases magnesium from the body’s slate. (Fuchs. 2002) (Tjaderhane. 1998) (Milne. 2000)  It’s time to put it back.  At 6.0 mg / kg / day, that equates to about 3.0 milligrams per pound of body weight…for all of us.

References

  • AUTISM RESEARCH REVIEW INTERNATIONAL Vol. 20, No.3, 2006
    Studies confirm benefits of vitamin B6/magnesium therapy for autism, PDD, and ADHD
    No Authors Cited

    +

  • Magnes Res. 1997 Jun;10(2):143-8.
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    Improvement of neurobehavioral disorders in children supplemented with magnesium-vitamin B6. II. Pervasive developmental disorder-autism.
    Mousain-Bosc M, Roche M, Polge A, Pradal-Prat D, Rapin J, Bali JP.

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    Magnesium VitB6 intake reduces central nervous system hyperexcitability in children.
    Mousain-Bosc M, Roche M, Rapin J, Bali JP.

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    and magnesium excretion in man

    Edward J. Lennon and Walter F. Piering

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    Goldman JA, Lerman RH, Contois JH, Udall JN Jr.

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    Carol Ballew, PhD; Sarah Kuester, MS, RD; Cathleen Gillespie

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    Magnesium deficiency is associated with insulin resistance in obese children.
    Huerta MG, Roemmich JN, Kington ML, Bovbjerg VE, Weltman AL, Holmes VF, Patrie JT, Rogol AD, Nadler JL.
    SourceUniversity of Virginia, Department of Pediatrics, Box 800386, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. [email protected]

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    Insulin Increases Renal Magnesium Excretion: A Possible Cause of Magnesium
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    Macromineral Homeostasis in Men

    David B. Milne, PhD and Forrest H. Nielsen, PhD

*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

Glutathione: It’s Your Gut

glutathione levelsSome things are so grossly unconventional that we think they’ll never get off the ground. To the contrary is the ultimate use of waste water, but not the kind you’re thinking of. This is olive water, the leftovers from the olive grinding mill. It seems that this material is able to influence some measures of oxidative stress in humans by affecting levels of glutathione, the body’s premier endogenous (self-made) antioxidant, able to be synthesized by all cells of the body.

It has already been accepted that plant phenols are beneficial compounds. Because of increasingly sophisticated testing techniques, those in olives are receiving more and more attention as amplifiers of the body’s antioxidant capacity. A French study performed in 2009 discovered that olive mill waste water has a positive effect on plasma antioxidant potency. Ingesting a mere 2 milliliters of this benevolent elixir contributed to,”…a significant increase in total plasma glutathione concentration…,” involving, “…both the reduced and oxidized forms…”  (Visioli. 2009)  It is widely recognized that specific groups of individuals benefit substantially from increased glutathione levels, most notably the geriatric population. Research has robustly demonstrated that the natural compounds in olives and now, apparently, their waste, play important roles within the living organism.

Glutathione is made from three amino acids—cysteine, glycine, and glutamine—none of which is absolutely essential.  In times of great physical stress, such as major surgery, however, glutamine may be conditionally essential, meaning it has to come from a food or a supplement. Glutathione is your personal antioxidant powerhouse, and it pays super dividends to keep stores as healthy as possible. It’s the presence of a sulfur group on the cysteine portion of the molecule that’s at the foundation of its powerful antioxidant capacity.

Widely found in all forms of life, glutathione plays an essential role in the health of an organism. Cysteine, the businessman of the molecule, but itself a relatively insoluble entity at normal pH, needs to be part of the glutathione tripeptide to do its work. Glutathione synthesizes and repairs DNA, transports amino acids, metabolizes toxins and carcinogens, strengthens the immune system, prevents oxidative damage, and activates enzymes.  It’s pretty busy, don’t you think? Levels of glutathione increase during exercise, but fall with old age, and are found to be deficient in age-related macular degeneration, diabetes, lung and gastrointestinal disease, pre-eclampsia, Parkinson’s disease, and other neurological maladies.

Glutathione exists within cells in its reduced form (GSH), meaning it has an extra electron. In the process of neutralizing reactive oxygen species it becomes oxidized (GSSG), but reacts with another oxidized glutathione to become glutathione disulfide.  Because of enzymatic activity, glutathione is self-healing, particularly in the presence of available cysteine.  (Miller. 2002)  In healthy cells, more than ninety percent is the reduced form…and it should stay that way.  (Owen. 2010) This has strong implications for dietary habits.

Raising GSH through direct supplementation is difficult.  Research suggests that oral glutathione is not well-absorbed across the gastrointestinal tract, since it may be inactivated by peptidase enzymes in the gut.  (Witschi. 1992)  At least in the brain, GSH may be elevated by vitamin D. (Garcion. 2001)   However, the supplements, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and lipoic acid can increase GSH levels.  (Gross.1993)   (Busse. 1992)   (Shay. 2009) Ongoing research will determine the true bioavailability of oral supplementation.  In cases of Acetaminophen (Tylenol) poisoning, the number one cause of emergency room poisoning visits, the hospital will likely use NAC as an antidote.  Among health care providers, at least a little speculation has focused on the inclusion of NAC in acetaminophen tablets and capsules.

Although no specific foods contain glutathione, there are some that can elevate levels, most by virtue of their sulfur content, including animal products, red peppers, cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, onions, oats, lentils, beets, eggs, and parsley.  Because it is fundamental to a raft of physiological process, especially as an antioxidant, it’s wise to eat the foods that will ramp it up, including olives.

References

Visioli F, Wolfram R, Richard D, Abdullah MI, Crea R.
Olive phenolics increase glutathione levels in healthy volunteers.

J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Mar 11; 57(5):1793-6.

Lauren T. Miller, Walter H. Watso, Ward G. Kirlin, Thomas R. Ziegler and Dean P. Jones
Oxidation of the Glutathione/Glutathione Disulfide Redox State Is Induced by Cysteine Deficiency in Human Colon Carcinoma HT29 Cells
J. Nutr. 132:2303-2306, 2002

Owen JB, Butterfield DA.
Measurement of oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio.
Methods Mol Biol. 2010;648:269-77.

Witschi A, Reddy S, Stofer B, Lauterburg BH.
The systemic availability of oral glutathione.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;43(6):667-9.

Garcion E, Wion-Barbot N, Montero-Menei CN, Berger F, Wion D.
New clues about vitamin D functions in the nervous system.
Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Apr;13(3):100-5.

Gross CL, Innace JK, Hovatter RC, Meier HL, Smith WJ.
Biochemical manipulation of intracellular glutathione levels influences cytotoxicity to isolated human lymphocytes by sulfur mustard.
Cell Biol Toxicol. 1993 Jul-Sep;9(3):259-67.

Busse E, Zimmer G, Schopohl B, Kornhuber B.
Influence of alpha-lipoic acid on intracellular glutathione in vitro and in vivo.
Arzneimittelforschung. 1992 Jun;42(6):829-31.

Kate Petersen Shay, Régis F. Moreau, Eric J. Smith, Anthony R. Smith, and Tory M. Hagen
Alpha-lipoic acid as a dietary supplement: Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009 October; 1790(10): 1149–1160.

Wu G, Fang YZ, Yang S, Lupton JR, Turner ND.
Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health.
J Nutr. 2004 Mar;134(3):489-92.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

Brain Fog

red-bow-on-fingerThere is a relationship between central nervous system missteps and markers of inflammation. Age doesn’t matter; it happens across the board. If the occasional bout of forgetfulness strikes you, you might recoil in fear of early-onset dementia, especially if the “occasions” are too close together. Is there anything you can do about this? Could it be something you ate? Maybe it’s something you didn’t eat.

Inflammation is a protective response to injury or destruction of tissue that tries to rid the body of the detrimental agent. The process elevates blood markers that are useful in predicting the onset of chronic conditions, such as diabetes or cardiovascular disease. One of these markers is called homocysteine, an amino acid made from methionine that degrades arterial architecture.  But what of mental lapses?  “Epidemiological studies show a positive, dose-dependent relationship between mild-to-moderate increases in plasma total homocysteine concentrations (Hcy) and the risk of neurodegenerative diseases, such as…cognitive impairment…”  (Herrmann.  2011)  Cognitive impairment is not necessarily a sign of impending dementia or Alzheimer’s disease, but elevated homocysteine is “…a surrogate marker for B vitamin deficiency (folate, B12, B6) and a neurotoxic agent.”  (Ibid.)

If you can provide details about your forgetfulness, you don’t have dementia. If you can recall what you read yesterday about the local political scene, you don’t have dementia. If you forgot where you put the car keys, join the crowd.  Nonetheless, you could have homocysteine levels that are too high for your own good.  It’s recognized that taking classes, doing word puzzles, playing chess, and generally challenging the mind can preserve memory.  But these activities won’t necessarily influence renegade body chemistry. Though conjectural, it has been suggested that inflammation disrupts the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, the highly selective membrane that protects the brain from pathogens in the blood, as well as regulates which molecules can pass between the blood and the cerebral spinal fluid. Inflammation compromises the function of the membrane, allowing large molecules access to the brain, resulting in neuronal damage.  (Stolp. 2009).

Herrmann and Obeid (2011) admit that the prospect of improving any degree of neurological distortion caused by homocysteine can be realized with B vitamins. Parallel independent investigation revealed that women with cognitive abasement had higher Hcy values than women without such a burden, and that the folate (a B vitamin also called B9) levels of the affected cohort were measurably lower.  (Faux. 2011)

Homocysteine can be changed back to methionine under the right conditions, namely in the presence of a methylation molecule, such as folic acid (called folate in food). Folate insufficiency, or outright inadequacy, can initiate mental lapses that could balloon into more serious conditions if deficit is prolonged. Therapeutically, folic acid is able to reduce Hcy and the occurrence of neural tube defects in neonates. A side benefit was observed to be the prevention of cervical dysplasia and protection against neoplasm formation in ulcerative colitis.  (Kelly.  1998) Geriatric scientists had indicted homocysteine as causative of neurobehavioral anomalies across a wide range of cognitive domains (Jyme. 2005), and later identified vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and folate (or folic acid) as ameliorative agents.  (Selhub. 2010)

Homocysteine levels do not always increase because of something we did or ate, but because of something we didn’t eat. That would be the foods providing ample supplies of B12, B6, and folic acid.  Certain chronic and contagious diseases that evoke an inflammatory response, even the flu or seasonal allergies, can bring on a foggy mind. Relieving the cause should bring physical relief, and changing the body chemistry should eliminate the fog. All you need is a cue to help you remember that your sunglasses are sitting above your eyebrows.

References

Herrmann W, Obeid R.
Homocysteine: a biomarker in neurodegenerative diseases.
Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011 Mar;49(3):435-41.

Stolp HB, Dziegielewska KM.
Review: Role of developmental inflammation and blood-brain barrier dysfunction in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases.
Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2009 Apr;35(2):132-46.

Faux NG, Ellis KA, Porter L, Fowler CJ, Laws SM, Martins RN, Pertile KK, Rembach A, et al
Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, and Folic Acid Levels in Alzheimer’s Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Healthy Elderly: Baseline Characteristics in Subjects of the Australian Imaging Biomarker Lifestyle Study.
J Alzheimers Dis. 2011 Sep 2.

Kelly GS
Folates: supplemental forms and therapeutic applications.
Altern Med Rev. 1998 Jun;3(3):208-20.

Jyme H. Schafer, MD, MPH; Thomas A. Glass, PhD; Karen I. Bolla, PhD; Margaret Mintz, MS; Anne E. Jedlicka, MS; Brian S. Schwartz, MD, MS
Homocysteine and Cognitive Function in a Population-based Study of Older Adults
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53(3):381-388

Selhub J, Troen A, Rosenberg IH.
B vitamins and the aging brain.
Nutr Rev. 2010 Dec;68 Suppl 2:S112-8.

Schulz RJ.
Homocysteine as a biomarker for cognitive dysfunction in the elderly
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2007 Nov;10(6):718-23.

Aron M. Troen, Melissa Shea-Budgell, Barbara Shukitt-Hale, Donald E. Smith, Jacob Selhub, and Irwin H. Rosenberg
B-vitamin deficiency causes hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular cognitive impairment in mice
PNAS August 26, 2008 vol. 105 no. 34 12474-12479

Roberts RO, Geda YE, Knopman DS, Boeve BF, Christianson TJ, Pankratz VS, Kullo IJ, Tangalos EG, Ivnik RJ, Petersen RC.
Association of C-reactive protein with mild cognitive impairment.
Alzheimers Dement. 2009 Sep;5(5):398-405.

Mancinella A, Mancinella M, Carpinteri G, Bellomo A, Fossati C, Gianturco V, Iori A, Ettorre E, Troisi G, Marigliano V.
Is there a relationship between high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and dementia?
Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009;49 Suppl 1:185-94.

Herrmann W
Significance of hyperhomocysteinemia.
Clin Lab. 2006;52(7-8):367-74.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

B Vitamins And Energy

happygirlA considerable fraction of the general population reports using one or more vitamin supplements. Reasons include fighting stress and tiredness, and improving mental function. Until recent decades, there was only modest support from the allopathic community that supplements could render any benefit.

Using questionnaires that tracked mood states, levels of perceived stress, and general health, researchers at the Brain Performance and Nutrition Center of Northumbria University, in the UK, discovered a relationship between vitamin supplement intake and overall performance as related to fatigue, mood, and feelings of well-being.  High-dose B-vitamin supplementation “…led to significant improvements in ratings…” in the vigor subscale of the subjective assessments.  (Kennedy. 2010)  Cognitive and executive function improved in parallel fashion as a result of physical reinvigoration.  The authors concluded that, “Healthy members of the general population may benefit from augmented levels of vitamins/minerals via direct dietary supplementation.”

When questioned about the rationale behind supplementation, the answer should list poor dietary choices, processed food, depleted soil, chemical fertilizers and biocides, synthetic additives, malabsorption, careless food preparation, haphazard storage and shipping, and the use of medications and alcohol.  Feel free to add a few.

Because the vitamin B complex is water-soluble and relatively delicate, it responds to whatever insults include boiling or steaming, heat, and prolonged exposure to light.  Not only that, but the complex is vulnerable to the aerosol pesticides used by the produce brokers who store foods prior to over-the-road shipping.

The B vitamins comprise a group that plays a vital role in cell metabolism.  They were once thought to be a single vitamin, but later were found to have distinct functions in the body, although they coexist in the same foods.  They received their numbers based on the order in which they were isolated.  In conjunction, the B complex is helpful to combat most symptoms and causes of conditions such as depression, stress, coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular concerns.  Working together, the B’s are able to support metabolic homeostasis, the immune system, and the nervous system, while simultaneously maintaining healthy skin, muscle tone, and promoting cell growth and division.  Neat, eh?

The water-solubility of B vitamins helps them disperse throughout the body, but also means that they need replacement every day.  Excess is excreted in urine, which explains the dark yellow-orange color that occurs after taking the supplement.  (That would be riboflavin, B2.)  One of the B group’s claims to fame is its role in the burning of carbohydrates for energy.  If this metabolic purpose is impaired, fatigue strikes, often with a vengeance.  Thiamine in particular, or one of its derivatives, is known to improve energy metabolism during physical fatigue (Nozaki.  2009), and is a reputed activator of carbohydrate processing (Masuda. 2010).

If taken as an isolated supplement, a singular B vitamin may act as a drug, even though there are few adverse reactions, with the possible exception of very high-dose pyridoxine (B6) being associated with sensory neuropathy.  (Scott. 2008)  Alcohol of any type, even the comparatively innocuous beer, will result in a net deficit of the B vitamins.

The stress that characterizes the Western lifestyle takes a physical, as well as psychological, toll.  The mood changes and testiness that follow physical exhaustion are shared with family and friends.  B-vitamin supplementation has shown itself to attenuate the causes and effects, either one at a time or together.  (Stough. 2011)  People with the lowest levels of the B vitamins in their diets usually have the poorest memories and cognitive abilities.  Those with gastric dysfunction, such as that characterized by low stomach acid or deficit of intrinsic factor, will absorb the least vitamin B12 from their foods, so are well-advised to supplement.

The interaction of the body’s chemistry is complex.  We need vitamin B2 to metabolize B6.  We need B6, B12, and folate to clear homocysteine, a marker for cardiac involvement.  But taking an isolated B vitamin without the rest of the family upsets the apple cart.  The RDA is a poor guide because it recommends only that dose of a nutrient that will prevent deficiency disease, such as beriberi or pellagra.  Meeting with a health care professional can help you to figure what’s what.

References

Kennedy DO, Veasey R, Watson A, Dodd F, Jones E, Maggini S, Haskell CF.
Effects of high-dose B vitamin complex with vitamin C and minerals on subjective mood and performance in healthy males.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010 Jul;211(1):55-68.

SUPPORTING ABSTRACTS
Nozaki S, Mizuma H, Tanaka M, Jin G, Tahara T, Mizuno K, Yamato M, Okuyama K, Eguchi A, et al
Thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide improves energy metabolism and physical performance during physical-fatigue loading in rats.
Nutr Res. 2009 Dec;29(12):867-72.

Masuda H, Matsumae H, Masuda T, Hatta H.
A thiamin derivative inhibits oxidation of exogenous glucose at rest, but not during exercise.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2010;56(1):9-12.

Scott K, Zeris S, Kothari MJ.
Elevated B6 levels and peripheral neuropathies.
Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. 2008 Jun-Jul;48(5):219-23.

Stough C, Scholey A, Lloyd J, Spong J, Myers S, Downey LA.
The effect of 90 day administration of a high dose vitamin B-complex on work stress.
Hum Psychopharmacol. 2011 Sep 8.

Bassett JK, Hodge AM, English DR, Baglietto L, Hopper JL, Giles GG, Severi G.
Dietary intake of B vitamins and methionine and risk of lung cancer.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Aug 31.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

Thiamin—Vitamin B1

spinach-cauliflowerAbout half of thiamin is found in skeletal muscle. Beriberi, more common in the 19th century, is a thiamin deficiency disease caused by a diet of highly polished rice, where the thiamin-rich husk is removed.  Deficiency appears in alcoholics, those with malabsorption syndromes, and in long-term use of loop diuretics.

BENEFITS

  • Involved in metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids
  • Acts as an anti-oxidant and anti-atherosclerosis agent
  • Modulates mood and cognition
  • Protects kidneys and liver from lead-induced lipid peroxidation
  • Energy production
  • Carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism

DEFICIENCY

  • Diseases of the nervous system
  • Weight loss
  • Emotional disorders
  • Weakness and pain in the limbs
  • Erratic heartbeat
  • Irreversible psychosis

SOURCES

  • Brewer’s yeast, wheat germ, oatmeal, while grains
  • Nuts, dried beans and peas
  • Spinach and cauliflower
  • Organ meats, pork, fish, poultry
  • Spinach and cauliflower

Subclinical thiamin deficiency may be more common than expected, and might appear as abnormal glucose tolerance.  Thiamin’s anti-oxidant properties have not been elucidated, but the brain damage associated with thiamin deficit indicates oxidative stress. Absorption of the nutrient is impeded by the tannins in coffee and tea, but may be offset by taking vitamin C. Some supplements used to treat osteoporosis, such as horsetail, can destroy thiamin in the stomach and lead to signs of thiamin deficiency, as can diseases such as Crohn’s, celiac, colitis, and diverticulitis.

 

Bromine Bullies Iodine

pj-babyWhen life gets comfortable, humans have a tendency to take things for granted.  “Ooh, yeah, I travel this route every day, so I know that light will change in about three more seconds.  Oops!  Not that time.”  “There’s hardly any traffic on my street, so I don’t have to look both ways before crossing.”  Mostly.  “That agency would never allow this stuff in our food.”  Maybe.  The stuff is bromine (bro-meen), one of the halogen elements that keeps company with fluorine, chlorine, and iodine.  It also hangs with astatine, but that’s radioactive and unavailable in nature.  Of these, iodine is the one we want…and need.

But bromine is the one occasionally forced down the throat, figuratively and literally.  Bromine’s utility covers quite a range.  In the form of methyl bromide and ethylene dibromide it’s a fumigant.  It also appears in cleaning agents, dyes, photographic chemicals, water (sewage) sanitation, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, and in the bleaching of fabrics.  If you’re not a reader of food ingredient labels, you’ll never know it’s in some of your food as well, either as bromated flour, brominated vegetable oil, or in another form.

As a flame retardant called Tris, bromine was used in children’s clothing, especially sleepwear, until the Consumer Product Safety Commission pulled it from the market in the late 70’s because of its potentially carcinogenic activity.  Not only was skin contact an issue, but also the “mouthing” that is common among toddlers.  (U.S. CPSC, 1977)  It’s not likely you have 35-year-old kids’ PJ’s around, but government acknowledgement that a substance can make us sick is worthy of attention.   If you have youngsters at home, it still might pay to read the pajamas’ label to check for flame resistance.  You might call the manufacturer to find out what chemical is used.  Although some fibers are naturally resistant to flame, many synthetics are not, including the acetates and polyesters.  Still, it is deemed prudent to launder children’s sleepwear more than once prior to first use.  To satisfy regulations, sleepwear has to be chemically treated to resist flame or be tight-fitting enough to discourage it.

Bromine has no necessary function in the body.  Substantial exposure to it can cause iodine deficiency, which will ultimately wreak havoc with the thyroid and every tissue in the body.  Prior to the year 2000, many of us had been exposed to considerable amounts of bromine from the pesticides used on produce and grains.  Its use is now restricted because of the dangers it poses to applicators, but it is still used.  (Do you like CA strawberries?)  However, as a fire retardant, it can be found in the plastics used in televisions and computers, in upholstery and carpeting  (as part of that new-car smell), in baked goods, and, of all places, in citrus-flavored beverages, including sodas and sports drinks.

Studies in Sweden have found measureable amounts of brominated substances in wildlife, and have noted that the thyroid glands of similarly treated laboratory animals suffered adverse effects. They added that the chemicals bind to red blood cells, which now entail the liver and kidneys.  (Darnerud, 2003)  A concern is that bromine behaves in a manner parallel to chlorine and iodine, two ions necessary to human metabolism.  Czech investigators realized that high levels of bromine can affect the body in two ways:  they can decrease iodine accumulation or increase iodine excretion by the kidneys.  In either case, the pool of iodine in the thyroid is diminished.  To an expectant or nursing mother, this is a legitimate concern.  (Pavelka, 2004)  Iodine deficiency is recognized as the most preventable cause of neonate mental retardation, developmental delay, and primary hypothyroidism.  (Patrick, 2008)  (DeLange, 2001)

A recent explosion of interest accompanied announcements that some soft drinks—mostly the citrus-flavored—have been adulterated with bromine in the form of brominated vegetable oil (BVO).  We wondered why soybean or corn oil would be brominated in the first place, and learned that it helps the oil to emulsify the beverage so it remains cloudy and keeps the flavoring suspended in the liquid.  Oil (citrus oils in this case) floats on water, but bromination makes the oil equally dense as water.  The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations restricts the addition of BVO as a food additive, but nonetheless allows its use.  That means that dosage makes the difference, just as being hit by a truck moving at twenty miles an hour differs from one moving at fifty.  It seems incongruous that bromine is listed in the Hazardous Substances Data Bank of the National Library of Medicine, yet is a food additive in the Federal Code.  (http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/r?dbs+hsdb:@[email protected]+7726-95-6)  People who have overdone the BVO in soft drinks have experienced headache, fatigue, ataxia, and memory loss.  (Horowitz, 1997)  Could that happen because bromine pushes iodine out?  Of all the halogens, iodine is the least reactive and the easiest to displace, despite being the heaviest element in the body, where it is distributed in mammary glands, the eyes, the gastric mucosa, and the salivary glands.

Long after ingestion, traces of BVO remain in tissue, and it likes to occupy space in the thyroid that belongs to iodine.  A hundred years ago, bromine, in the form of potassium bromide, was used as a sedative, but its application in that area has been limited to epilepsy, in which case it still interrupts iodine’s role in thyroid hormone synthesis.  (Li, 2011)  Despite a poor reputation, bromine compounds are used by the baking industry to improve the gluten development of flour.  Once upon a time flour was naturally aged through exposure to air, allowing it to oxidize on its own and to develop the building blocks it needs to bridge gluten molecules and to create a stronger dough.  Potassium bromate is used to hasten the process.  Along the way, it whitens the flour, which seems to make it a more acceptable commodity.  Oddly, potassium iodate is also an oxidizing agent.

Even stranger is that potassium bromate has been banned in the European Union, Canada, Nigeria, Brazil, Peru, China, and Sri Lanka, but not in the United States.  California, though, has required a warning label on bags of bromated flour.  Now that we have fire retardant soda and flour, don’t you feel safer?  Soda has never been a dietary winner, but now it’s even less so.  By the way, theobromine in chocolate contains no bromine.

References

Carroll JE, Norris BJ, Villadiego A, Wheeler SD.
Brominated vegetable oil myopathy: inhibition at multiple sites.
Muscle Nerve. 1984 Oct;7(8):642-6.

Darnerud PO.
Toxic effects of brominated flame retardants in man and in wildlife.
Environ Int. 2003 Sep;29(6):841-53.

DeLange F.
Iodine deficiency as a cause of brain damage
Postgrad Med J 2001;77:217-220

Gao B, Yin G.
Effects of high-dose iodine on brain development in mice
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1997 May;31(3):134-6.

Horowitz BZ.
Bromism from excessive cola consumption.
J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1997;35(3):315-20.

Kudo Y, Yamauchi K, Fukazawa H, Terao Y.
In vitro and in vivo analysis of the thyroid system-disrupting activities of brominated phenolic and phenol compounds in Xenopus laevis.
Toxicol Sci. 2006 Jul;92(1):87-95.

Li D, Pei H, Li X, Liu X, Li X, Xie Y.
Short term effects of combined treatment with potassium bromide and methimazole in patients with Graves’ disease.
J Endocrinol Invest. 2011 Dec 16. [Epub ahead of print]

National Library of Medicine
TOXNET
Hazardous Substances Data Bank
HSDB
BROMINE
CASRN: 7726-95-6
[Chemical structure for BROMINE]
http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/r?dbs+hsdb:@[email protected]+7726-95-6

Patrick L.
Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations.
Altern Med Rev. 2008 Jun;13(2):116-27.

Pavelka S.
Metabolism of bromide and its interference with the metabolism of iodine.
Physiol Res. 2004;53 Suppl 1:S81-90.

Pavelka S, Babický A, Lener J, Vobecký M.
Impact of high bromide intake in the rat dam on iodine transfer to the sucklings.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2002 Jul;40(7):1041-5.

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission
NEWS from CPSC
April 7, 1977
Release # 77-030
CPSC Bans TRIS-Treated Children’s Garments
http://www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/prerel/prhtml77/77030.html

Velický J, Titlbach M, Dusková J, Vobecký M, Strbák V, Raska I.
Potassium bromide and the thyroid gland of the rat: morphology and immunohistochemistry, RIA and INAA analysis.
Ann Anat. 1997 Oct;179(5):421-31.

Velický J, Titlbach M, Lojda Z, Dusková J, Vobecký M, Strbák V, Raska I.
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Vobecký M, Babický A, Lener J, Svandová E.
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Vobecký M, Pavelka S, Babický A.
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*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

Blood-Brain Barrier – What Is It?

brain-barrier“Homeostasis” is not a topic commonly discussed at parties or at the dinner table. Nobody pays attention to it unless it’s severely out of order. That’s because few of us know what it is. Your body is able to control everything that goes on inside—the composition of body fluids, the physiological responses to stimuli, the maintenance of body temperature, and whatever else we need to keep equilibrium. That’s homeostasis. Nowhere in the body is it more important than in the brain. The mechanism for supporting this lies in the blood-brain barrier, the BBB. This comprises a network of capillaries that supply blood to the brain. The permeability of these particular capillaries is such that some substances are prevented from entering the brain tissue while others are allowed. Sometimes it’s only a matter of big molecules versus small molecules. The BBB was discovered by a bacteriologist named Paul Ehrlich, who found that a dye injected into the bloodstream colored the tissues of most organs except the brain.

Further study realized that the barrier is located in the endothelial (skin-like) cells of the capillaries, which are joined by tight junctions of substantial electrical resistance, providing a barrier against some molecules. The BBB is both a physical barrier and a system of cellular transport mechanisms. It restricts the passage of potentially harmful materials from the blood, yet allows the traverse of nutrients. Fat-soluble substances, such as ethanol and caffeine, are able to get through by way of the lipid membranes of the cells. Oddly, water-soluble materials, such as sodium and potassium, may not cross the barrier without an escort molecule of some type.

The BBB becomes more permeable during inflammatory attacks, allowing some medications (mostly antibiotics) and phagocytes to pass through. That’s good. A not-so-good thing is that opportunistic bacteria and viruses can get through, too. Most of them are too big, though. Therefore, brain infections are rare. One exception is the spirochete, Borrelia, associated with Lyme’s disease, which seems to be able to infiltrate blood vessel walls after causing inflammation of the central nervous system. (Rupprecht. 2008)  There are very few fat-soluble small molecules that can get through, and that can cause problems when life-saving chemicals are barred entrance. (Pardridge. 2002)  Other than some infectious diseases, no chronic diseases are cured by small-molecule drugs. Large-molecule drugs have the potential to heal patients with neurological conditions, but none can cross the BBB.

INSULTS TO THE BBB

What can harm the blood-brain barrier?  Alcohol, fluoride, oxidized LDL and brain concussions, to name a few.  Alcohol crosses the BBB (Stins. 2009) and forms metabolites that act as signaling molecules to activate enzymes leading to BBB dysfunction and to neuro-inflammatory disorders. (Haorah. 2007)  Furthermore, alcohol causes oxidative neuron damage and results in cognitive deficits that characterize stupor and memory lapses, all because it inhibits the glucose transport upon which the brain depends as a source of energy. (Abdul Muneer. 2011)

As beneficial as topical fluoride might be in the prevention of tooth decay, its ingestion is another story, where elevated levels have been associated with increased rates of mental deficiency and borderline intelligence. Chinese researchers found that high fluoride levels in drinking water have a profound effect on the intelligence of developing children. (Xiang. 2003)  Simultaneous study concluded that fluoride accumulates in the hippocampus—the part of the brain involved in memory—and inhibits activity of cholinesterase, the enzyme that regulates the function of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, which mediates synaptic activity. (Zhai. 2003)  In earlier investigations, scientists found that the chemical had impact on those persons chronically exposed to industrial fluoride pollution, wherein there occurred symptoms of impaired central nervous system functioning and faulty cognitions and memories. (Spittle. 1994)  From the outside, fluoride is acceptable treatment for the prevention of caries; from the inside, no.

Oxidized LDL (oxLDL), which appears when LDL spends too much time in the blood before getting repackaged as fat by the liver or being taken up by peripheral tissue, is capable of inducing cell injury. When cerebral endothelial cells are exposed to OxLDL, their viability decreases in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and their programmed cell death is hastened. Intracellular reactive oxygen species are increased, and mitochondria become dysfunctional. (Chen. 2007)  A blow to the head can cause a concussion, but so can violent jarring or shaking. This sudden change of momentum (the resistance to changes in motion or stability) may evoke unconsciousness or disruption of vital functions of the brainstem. The increased pressure that may result will render the BBB increasingly permeable, particularly at the site of insult. (Beaumont. 2001)

BBB PROTECTION

Is there a way to protect the BBB?  Yes, but there is space here to address only a few. Caffeine—we all know how to get that—has been shown to block disruption of the blood brain barrier in a rabbit model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). So, what do rabbits have to do with people?  Lab animals are selected based on their organ systems’ similarity of function to corresponding systems in humans. In a cholesterol-induced model of AD, scientists found that caffeine was able to block substances that compromise the integrity of the molecules (called occludins) that hold the tight junctions of the BBB together. (Chen. 20081)  Perhaps caffeine and related drugs may be useful to treat AD. But there’s more. In Parkinson’s disease (PD), similar BBB disruptions are characteristic, and caffeine again was the rescue agent. (Chen. 20082)  (Chen. 2010)

Indian neurologists have studied the effects of curcumin (from turmeric) on patients with AD, and have found the herb’s anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to be beneficial in treating dementia and traumatic brain injury. The pharmacological effects of curcumin have decreased beta-amyloid plaques, delayed degradation of neurons, and decreased microglia formation while improving overall memory in AD patients. (Mishra. 2008)

Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, is a drug used to prevent seizures and to stabilize mood, used mostly in epilepsy treatment. Histone acetylation plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression. Keeping it intact is vital. Valproic acid and others of its kind do just that. It protects against cerebral ischemia (decrease of blood supply) and prevents disruption of the BBB. The effects of VPA are mimicked by a companion molecule, sodium butyrate, a compound available as an OTC supplement. (Wang, et al. 2011)  Inflammation and macrophage infiltration follow a cerebral ischemic attack. Injected sodium butyrate or VPA was found to be effective at reducing the area of infarction and inhibiting inflammatory markers, as long as administration occurred within a three-hour window. The potential for use in stroke patients is being studied. (Kim. 2007)

One of the hottest supplements on the market is resveratrol, the magical ingredient in grapes, peanuts and red wine that purports to protect against aging.  Whether it can do that or not is insignificant in light of its use as an anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant agent, which render it useful in addressing cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Scientists in Taiwan have found resveratrol to protect the BBB from the damaging effects of oxLDL attack on its tight junctions and the substances responsible for its integrity. (Lin. 2010)  (Chang. 2011)  In normal aging the BBB seems to remain intact, but its permeability becomes an issue. Certain drugs and physical conditions, such as hypertension, may have deleterious effects on its stability. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) spawned by these vehicles can be attenuated by a low molecular weight substance known as alpha-lipoic acid, a sulfurated fatty acid (a thiol) regarded as a member of the B vitamin family and used to metabolize carbohydrates. One of lipoic acid’s claims to fame is the capability to regenerate and to recirculate both the fat-soluble vitamin E and the water-soluble vitamin C, while simultaneously raising intracellular glutathione levels. In this regard it was cited as a meaningful tool in the treatment of oxidative brain damage and neural disorders involving free radicals, such as would arise from ischemia, excitotoxic amino acid brain insult, mitochondrial dysfunction, diabetes and diabetic neuropathy, inborn errors of metabolism and other causes of neural damage. What is deemed the most important thiol anti-oxidant, glutathione, is not usually directly administered, whereas alpha-lipoic acid may be. (Packer. 1997)   Analysis of studies on alpha-lipoic acid finds it to be a participant in processes of cell growth and differentiation, thus adding to its moniker, anti-oxidant of anti-oxidants. (Bilska. 2005)

No mention of anti-oxidants would be complete without vitamin C, the oxidized version of which—dehydroascorbic acid—can cross the BBB via glucose transporters. Though best known for its anti-oxidant powers, vitamin C is also involved in enzyme reactions and the manufacture of collagen in conjunction with amino acids. Because it can traverse the BBB, vitamin C (ascorbic acid) has welcome anti-oxidant potential in the central nervous system. (Agus. 1997). Its use in the treatment of cerebral compression insult, as from a concussion, has preserved BBB integrity and rescued somatosensory function from debilitation. (Lin. 2010)

For years, the failures of clinical trials in the treatment of neurological diseases have been blamed on the tested substances’ ineffectiveness, when the whole time none could get past the blood-brain barrier.

References

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Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool, 2009
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Zhifei Wang, Yan Leng, Li-Kai Tsai, Peter Leeds and De-Maw Chuang
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*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.