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Aging and The Brain

coconut oil, fats oils, essential fatty acids

Our brains are 60% fat. In light of what we know of brain function and the essential fatty acids that are responsible, the term “fat-head” could now be a complement. Since our brains are in charge and require the right fats to run our thinking machinery, our first priority is to make sure we add the right ones into our diet, the omega 6s and omega 3s. They are essential and get the job done. First – let’s review some of the basics.

Fats and oils can be divided into two densities and two levels. The densities are not unlike the SAE oils, the Society of Automotive Engineers who organize the oils for our autos. But it is better to skip the details at the moment and divide them in two categories “thick” and “thin”. Fats are the thick ones and oils are thin, actually runny. It’s quite good to divide them in this simplistic way. The confusion about what we eventually eat is all over the lot and besides, our cells and membranes organize fats and oils as partners with each having a precise role. The membrane does not work without both, thick and thin, sluggish and active. We can begin with the ones we use in our kitchens because they wind up in our metabolism whether we like it or not.

You can think of the thick ones as butter or lard. We tend to look down on lard as being out of date. We regard it as a thing of the past. Our grandparents and great grandparents certainly didn’t think so. As cooking oil, lard has been with us for some time. It’s been a staple for centuries, probably hundreds of centuries, and we’ve survived and even flourished. It’s part of our evolutionary history. Those thick heavy oils were skimmed off the top of stews and saved, collected from roasts of pork, lamb, goose or turkey. It was regarded as valuable stuff. Before the light bulb, making candles was a basic part of life so the rendering of fat in the kitchen was universal. The plain fact is that lard is OK for cooking. However, just reminiscing, not pushing lard today.

Butter and olive oil are both excellent cooking oils, however, coconut is also marvelous for cooking. It’s not exactly a thick fat, for as you know, it quickly gets thin as the temperature rises. Castillo et al 1999, reports that “Supplementation of coconut oil produced a significant hypercholesterolemia after 7 days of treatment. However, supplementation of menhaden oil induced a significant decrease in total cholesterol after only 2 weeks of treatment”. The raising of cholesterol may sound sacrilegious; however, notwithstanding the loud din of media anti-cholesterol noise, there are those who have difficulty in doing just that – raising cholesterol. Cholesterol is an important fat for our cell membranes; it metabolizes up to our gonadal hormones — think sex. No necessity in elaborating on that subject. It’s also a precursor for our adrenal hormones, which produce our life saving impulses for fight or flight, and bile acids which shepherd the fats and oils around in the blood stream. Without further ado — cholesterol is necessary.

Castillo creates an interesting picture of coconut oil, or butter, as you prefer, and the essential oils that are part of our diet. By itself, coconut can raise cholesterol, but by introducing menhaden oil, it just as quickly reverses and lowers it. This feature of menhaden oil, basically an omega 3 essential fatty acid (EFAs), to lower cholesterol, is also duplicated with the omega 6 EFAs, and there is abundant research that corroborates it. We can regard all of the omega 6s and 3s as “thin oils” and cholesterol, when grouped together as a very “thick fat”.

The lesson here is more than casual. We need the thick ones and we desperately need the thin ones. The thin ones keep the thick ones from collecting to the degree where we tend to get into trouble that comes with aging, such as atherosclerosis, heart disease. In just these two words, thick and thin, we have covered half of all Fatty Acid biochemistry in human metabolism. But it may be just too simple to be looked at with the respect that it deserves. You may spend a third of your life getting a medical degree and half again practicing medicine, but if you do not see this simple relationship you will also retire as a failure from your chosen field of medicine.

Coconut used to be the preferred oil for making popcorn, but ADM and the other large oil producers chased it out of the movies over 30 years ago. It’s a shame we lost it. It was much healthier eating coconut oil than what is currently in use today. Most of the oils used for popcorn and fries are PUFAs, they are thin and should not be heated. They quickly degenerate and become partially hydrogenated and/or oxidize and become rancid.

Coconut oil is one of the most stable oils you can buy. It does not turn rancid easily. It does not attack your arteries. In fact, coconut oil was one of the foods Dr. Weston Price studied when he traveled the world searching for healthier people and their lifestyles. In his journeys he discovered that the coconut was considered a medicine food by the local populations. He found that those civilizations that consumed coconut regularly had no knowledge of cancer, heart disease, arthritis, or diabetes.

There are few other choices for cooking unless you think of the new GMO oils like high oleic soybean, sunflower or safflower oils, Canola also fits into that group because it was one of the first GMO oils to be converted. Canola contains erucic acid, a very long chain saturated fat. It is unhealthy for our membranes, it’s too long and slows the fluidity of the membrane. Think of erucic as a gawking fat blocking our healthy fats from doing what they want to do, running quickly in our membranes managing our cells. Please avoid canola. We simply do not like GMOs for anything we eat.

The thin oils, the PUFAs, come from seeds, nuts, and grains like olive, sunflower, corn, walnut, etc. They harbor the essential fatty acids which play a vital role when the time comes for them to reproduce new versions of themselves. Oils like olive are mostly Mono-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFAs), and are OK, but do not stack up with the likes of the omega 6 and 3 PUFAs, the very healthy FAs. These Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids, with more than one double bond, are the stars in our choices of foods. They are predominantly made up of the essential oils, the omega 6s and the omega 3s and are exclusively made by plant seeds. They are important for life and especially the brain. When we use the term essential, we mean that the body cannot function without them. They are essential for life, our life. They hold the secret to Brain health, which we will delve into on Aging and the Brain: Part 2.

To learn more about one of the most important EFA discoveries of the last century, the ratio of 6s and 3s, which is 4: 1, 80% omega 6 (linoleic) to 20% omega 3 (linolenic), go tohttp://www.bodybio.com/BodyBio/docs/BodyBioBulletin-4to1Oil.pdf.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

Diabetes and Omega-3’s

Diabetes, Omega-3 fatty acids Super FoodsReading, interpreting and understanding scientific literature can be tedious because the authors often find that their previous paper on the subject missed its mark or was completely wrong. Easy to do when you are blazing new trails; however, the caution they go through to cover their tracks oftentimes makes for difficult reading. Luc Djousse and his colleagues at the U of Washington reported in the May 18, 2011 edition of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition that, “With the use of objective biomarkers, long-chain omega 3 Fatty Acids (FAs) and Alpha-Linolenic Acid (ALA) were not associated with a higher incidence of diabetes. Individuals with the highest concentrations of both types of FAs had lower risk of diabetes.”

Speed reading is absolutely out of place. Omega-3 fatty acids in the body help to control the inflammation process, which is a benefit because the start of the healing process—initiated by the omega-6 arachidonic acid—also involves the possibility of getting carried away with the exercise. Say you have a cut or abrasion. The key activity that ensues is to stop the loss of fluids – save the blood.  It is that process which tells the body to start the healing by sending white blood cells and platelets to the site of the wound and to agglomerate and close the exit door by swelling the tissues, which is also another way of looking at inflammation. To inflame can be life saving. The omega-3’s are then involved in the work of modulating the activity helping to ease the inflammation that comes with the correction process.

Fatty acids, especially those that are long and highly unsaturated, increase cell membrane fluidity and functionality. Fatty acids are essential to membrane activity at the location of hormone receptors. Insulin resistance in adult-onset diabetes is directly associated with fewer membrane enhancing long-chain fatty acids, largely due to impaired function of desaturase and elongase enzymes needed for a healthy membrane. Ruiz-Gutierrez 1993, “We have studied the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids in nine Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients and nine healthy control subjects. Cell membranes from the diabetic patients showed a marked decrease in the total amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids mainly at the expense of docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, and arachidonic acid C20:4n6”.

Cell membrane abnormalities in lipid content are found to be related to poor metabolic control, which is a characteristic of diabetes. Diet is a very important  factor, and interventions with dietary essential fatty acids (EFAs) in the correct ratio (found to be 4:1, omega-6:omega-3), can make a difference. Decsif  T., 2002, “Reduced availability of long-chain polyunsaturates in diabetic children suggests that an enhanced dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturates may be beneficial”. Children with diabetes demonstrate a deficit of long-chain fatty acids, so incorporating them into a child’s diet is prudent. An unspoken benefit in the application of EFA’s to diabetes treatment is the decrease in triglyceride levels, themselves striking indicators of the potential for cardiovascular issues and very often appearing in persons with diabetes.

Herein resides the prolonged physiological support of the EFAs. For those who lack the efficient conversion of the omega-3 alpha linolenic acid from plant sources (notably flaxseeds and their oil) to EPA and DHA, fish oil may be a viable alternative. In fact the the FA conversion process with diabetes is almost non-existent, but also common with aging.

For quite some time the essential fatty acids have been misunderstood. Of the types of fatty acids, the omega-3’s have received the most publicity, having been applauded for positive health effects, principally, because over the last century the general population ate little fish and had little or no n-3s in the diet. Unless they were more or less health nuts, few did not have any exposure to omega 3s as in flax, and even if they did their ability to elevate up to EPA and DHA was minimal. Fish oil was the answer but the explosion that ensued caused over-consumption and still does.

Hence the comments of Djousse et al that n-3 FAs did not increase diabetes but if both the omega 6s and the 3 s were added together there was marked improvements. There is an inference that n-3s were of no benefit and needed the balance of both EFAs, which we applaud and so should you. Balance is paramount.

References

Djoussé L, Biggs ML, Lemaitre RN, King IB, Song X, Ix JH, Mukamal KJ, Siscovick DS, Mozaffarian D. Plasma omega-3 fatty acids and incident diabetes in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 May 18.

Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Stiefel P, Villar J, García-Donas MA, Acosta D, Carneado J.  Cell membrane fatty acid composition in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients: relationship with sodium transport abnormalities and metabolic control.  Diabetologia. 1993 Sep;36(9):850-6.

T. Decsif, H. Minda, R. Hermann, A. Kozári, É. Erhardt, I. Burus, Sz. Molnár and Gy. Soltész  Polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipids of diabetic children  Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 67(4); Oct 2002: 203-210

*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

Fat Blocking Soda?

pepsi141112_insideNow we can eat all the fat we want in a meal and still lose weight. Forget that two cheeseburgers, fries and a soda, or fried onions rings/mushrooms and a juicy prime cut of beef with a gooey baked potato smothered in cheese sauce will render your blood as thick as petroleum jelly in a matter of minutes. The magic in this dining extravaganza is the soda, a new variety of cola that contains a fat blocker known as dextrin. But wait, first you have to travel to Japan to get this treat from Pepsi and its affiliate, Suntory, a company that distills booze “to bring happiness into the lives of our customers…in harmony with people and nature.” Yup, makes sense, eh?

Dextrin?
This is a group of carbohydrates that can be made by breaking down starch in the presence of water…hydrolysis. Dextrin also appears in the company of heat under acidic conditions, as happens to the crust on a loaf of bread, rendering flavor, color and crunch. Commercially, dextrins are used to make the glue on an envelope flap, the crispness enhancer in breaded frozen foods, and the cement that holds the pyrotechnics together in fireworks and sparklers. Because they are indigestible, dextrins are added to soluble fiber supplements, such as Benefiber. Whether they can help a person lose weight or not is another question; fiber’s claim to fame is increasing satiety and making you feel fuller faster. Fiber doesn’t actually push food through the system more quickly. Instead, it slows transit time through the stomach and small intestine, where digestion takes place. This is why fiber-rich foods keep you feeling full longer.  Once fiber gets to the large intestine, it keeps things in motion until they come out. It is true, though, that fiber can absorb some fat, but probably not enough to cause a significant weight loss in a short amount of time.

What About Fat?
Eliminating fat from the diet completely is not prudent. We need it to digest, absorb and transport vitamins A, D, E, and K, which are fat-soluble. The body demands the essential fatty acids, the omega-6’s and omega-3’s, to make substances that address inflammation, affect cell signaling, and add fluidity to the cell membrane. Furthermore, fat is an insulator and it provides a place for organs to attach while acting as a cushion, and it helps to keep the skin supple. If there is a problem with fat, it’s that one gram has 9 calories, contrasted to the 4 calories of carbohydrates and proteins. Fat gets broken down by enzymes, pancreatic lipase being the primary one. In the absence of this enzyme, fat molecules remain too large to be absorbed, so are excreted. The objective of the dextrins is to absorb some of this fat and usher it out the back door.

There are substances that do not absorb fats but prevent their breakdown, keeping their molecules too large to be metabolized so that they get eliminated quickly. One of the first of these was Orlistat, a prescription drug named Xenical that prevents the absorption of fat by inhibiting the enzymes that make the fat particles small enough to be metabolized.  But the side effects of drugs like this can be embarrassing, especially the urgent explosive diarrhea and gas, among a few other neat ones, like fainting or scratching yourself silly.  Alli is an over-the-counter version of Orlistat.

Does Dextrin Work?
According to the researchers at Japan’s NIH who studied this stuff, it works. The test animals were fed a high-cholesterol diet containing dextrin and a diglyceride, the latter molecule a fat used in foods to blend certain ingredients together, such as oil and water, which otherwise would not mix. Upon examination of the animals, the group found that serum triglycerides decreased and, strikingly, that the length of intestinal villi increased (Nagata, 2006).  Basically, less of the fat was absorbed. You can buy dextrin, either as Benefiber or Nutriose, and make your own soda or other high-fiber beverage (even one from Suntory).

What About The Vitamins?
Vitamin A, retinol, helps with night vision, bone growth, tooth development, reproduction, cell division and gene expression. It’s great for the skin and mucous membranes. It’s even recommended to treat acne. Vitamin D is needed to help the body to use calcium and phosphorus in the structure of bones. It supports the immune system and may help to prevent hypertension and common cancers. Vitamin E is an anti-oxidant that protects vitamins A and C, red blood cells and essential fatty acids from destruction via oxidative stress. Vitamin K is naturally produced by gut bacteria, but is also found in foods and as a supplement. It not only helps blood to clot normally, but also escorts calcium to bones where it can’t contribute to arterial plaque. There‘s more, but we don’t have the room for that right now. None of these can be utilized without fat in the diet, so if you choose to use dextrin to absorb fat from a meal, be deliberate, keep things in balance, and supplement.

References

Carter R, Mouralidarane A, Ray S, Soeda J, Oben J.
Recent advancements in drug treatment of obesity.
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Carvalho MA, Zecchin KG, Seguin F, Bastos DC, Agostini M, Rangel AL, Veiga SS, Raposo HF, Oliveira HC, Loda M, Coletta RD, Graner E.
Fatty acid synthase inhibition with Orlistat promotes apoptosis and reduces cell growth and lymph node metastasis in a mouse melanoma model.
Int J Cancer. 2008 Dec 1;123(11):2557-65.

Kimura Y, Nagata Y, Buddington RK.
Some dietary fibers increase elimination of orally administered polychlorinated biphenyls but not that of retinol in mice.
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Lefranc-Millot C, Guérin-Deremaux L, Wils D, Neut C, Miller LE, Saniez-Degrave MH.
Impact of a resistant dextrin on intestinal ecology: how altering the digestive ecosystem with NUTRIOSE®, a soluble fibre with prebiotic properties, may be beneficial for health.
J Int Med Res. 2012;40(1):211-24.

Nagata J, Saito M.
Effects of simultaneous intakes of indigestible dextrin and diacylglycerol on lipid profiles in rats fed cholesterol diets.
Nutrition. 2006 Apr;22(4):395-400. Epub 2006 Feb 2.

Sheikh-Taha M, Ghosn S, Zeitoun A.
Oral aphthous ulcers associated with orlistat.
Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2012 Sep 1;69(17):1462, 1464. doi: 10.2146/ajhp120073.

Seguin F, Carvalho MA, Bastos DC, Agostini M, Zecchin KG, Alvarez-Flores MP, Chudzinski-Tavassi AM, Coletta RD, Graner E.
The fatty acid synthase inhibitor orlistat reduces experimental metastases and angiogenesis in B16-F10 melanomas.
Br J Cancer. 2012 Sep 4;107(6):977-87. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2012.355. Epub 2012 Aug 14.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

Essential Fats Explained

fattyacid-sourceThe essential fatty acids (EFA’s) are just that—essential, meaning they have to come from the diet because the body can’t manufacture them. They might be used as fuel, but they are absolute components of the biological processes that make us work. Only two fatty acid families are vital to humans, omega-6’s and omega-3’s. It’s been shown that their ratio is more important than their volume. The parent fatty acid (FA) in the omega-6 (n-6) line is linoleic acid, abundant in many vegetable oils and ultimately responsible for the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid and related prostaglandins, which are compounds that regulate physiological activities. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the mother omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid, commonly extracted from seed oils such as flaxseed and hemp, but also found in walnuts. Nearly every aspect of human physiology is affected by essential fats, receptors for which are located in practically every cell.

The n-6 fatty acids have been denigrated in recent years because their excess has been linked to several metabolic upsets. Unbalanced diets are harmful to health, and the n-6’s that overpopulate processed foods and rancid supermarket oils have contributed to myriad health woes. What possibly started out as a 1 to 1 or 2 to 1 ratio of n-6 fatty acids to n-3 fatty acids in the human diet eons ago has become a physiological disaster of imbalance, where the ratio exceeds 10 to 1 in the typical Western diet, and may even approach 20 to 1, or worse, in personal food intake. All fatty acids go through a process of desaturation and elongation to become eminently bioactive compounds. The ultimate products of the process are beneficial to human health, especially if they are made step-by-step by the body and not forced upon it through manufactured meals, unnaturally finished meat products, stale/oxidized vegetable oils, and fossilized eggs, not to mention horrific snack foods. In a healthy body, linoleic acid is converted to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), which becomes arachidonic acid, from which come the chemicals that control inflammation. After adulthood, the body’s ability to make those conversions is uncertain, so starting with GLA gives us a head start. However, mother linoleic acid is anti-inflammatory in its own right and even a marginal conversion to GLA has been held effective in the management of conditions as diverse as rheumatoid arthritis, eczema and ADD/ADHD.

The n-3 parent, ALA, also must come from diet because humans lack the enzymes necessary to convert it from other fats. But it’s the downstream omega-3’s that get the publicity:  EPA and DHA. Like the n-6’s, the conversion of ALA to EPA and later to DHA is an uncertain proposition in adulthood, which is why most adults use fish oil, a source of pre-made fatty acids. Even in the absence of the requisite conversion co-factors (vitamin B6, Mg, biotin, vitamin B3, vitamin C and Zn), ALA is anti-inflammatory and cardiac friendly (Pan, 2012) (Vedtofte, 2012), with recent scrutiny heralding its potential to inhibit progression of atherosclerosis (Bassett, 2011). The most readily available source of ALA is flaxseed, although chia, the newest kid on the block, is entering the marketplace.

Signs of fatty acid deficiency include a dry scaly rash, impoverished growth in youngsters, increased susceptibility to infections and poor wound healing, but are uncommon. The enzymes that convert the parent fatty acids act preferentially toward the n-3’s. By the time these enzymes deal with the omega-3 fats, some of the omega-6’s have been used for energy, hence the need to get more 6’s than 3’s, in a ratio of about 4 to 1, as evidenced by intensive research done in the 1990’s and early-mid 2000’s (Yahuda, 1993, 1996) (Simopoulos, 2002, 2008). But this ratio is based on the body’s own manufacture of the downstream fatty acids, GLA and arachidonic acid (ARA) along the n-6 line (the latter now included in products designed for infants to insure proper brain development) and EPA/DHA down the n-3 line. Deficiency of essential fatty acids sometimes strikes those suffering from cystic fibrosis or fat malabsorption issues. If patients receive total parenteral nutrition without the inclusion of EFA’s, deficit will appear in about a week or two.

The dry weight of the brain is about 80% lipids, the highest of any organ. The long-chain polyunsaturated fats, especially the n-6 and n-3, are crucial in modulating neural function. They occupy as much as 30% of the brain’s dry weight, making their influence on neural membrane dynamics profound. The shift away from EFA’s in the Western—typically American—diet parallels a rise in mental disorders. The need to address EFA supplementation is real and current, with the inclusion of omega-6 fats a necessity, since GLA, the downstream scion of linoleic acid, has held its own in mental health studies (Vaddadi, 2006). Together, the n-6’s and n-3’s cooperate in a number of cellular functions that affect membrane fluidity, allowing the passage of food and energy into the cell and wastes out. Arachidonic acid is a precursor to signaling molecules in the brain and is a key inflammatory intermediate, while EPA and DHA work to support the cardiovascular system, and the brain and retina.

It is arachidonic acid that supports membrane fluidity in the hippocampus, the part of the brain that directs memory, spatial relations and inhibition (Fukaya, 2007). It is arachidonic acid that protects the brain against oxidative stress and activates proteins in charge of the growth and repair of neurons (Darios, 2006). There is conjecture that ARA supplementation during the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease may slow its progress and stave off symptoms (Schaeffer, 2009). That’s a pretty good promise for something that’s been spurned…for lack of knowledge. Of the n-3’s, EPA may be effective in addressing depressive conditions and behavioral anomalies, besides being able to reduce inflammation (Brind, 2001) (Song, 2007). There had been some concern that EPA adversely affects clotting factors and fibrinogen concentrations, increasing the likelihood of bleeding. That is not so (Finnegan, 2003). It does, however, improve blood viscosity and red blood cell deformity, which allows red cells to adjust their shape to squeeze through narrow blood vessels, like capillaries. Downstream from EPA is DHA, a major fatty acid in sperm, brain phospholipids and the retina of the eye, and found to lower triglycerides. But its claim to fame is its rapid accrual in the developing brain during the third trimester of pregnancy and early postnatal period (Auestad, 2003) (Wainwright, 2000).

You can safely bet the farm that endogenous (made by the body itself) substances are more tightly regulated than exogenous. For example, the arachidonic acid your body makes from linoleic acid is more respectable than that from a haphazardly slaughtered steer, which may or may not be completely lifeless before the abattoir starts to dress it. In fear and pain, the animal releases a torrent of adrenal hormones throughout its flesh, confounding the integrity of its innate fatty acids. Endogenous fatty acids are, therefore, more wholesome.

How do we acquire the parent fatty acids?  You could buy oils that boast omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid content from the supermarket, but it’s almost guaranteed that the balance will be too far out of whack to deliver a benefit, and the purity of the oils is possibly iffy. In fact, they might upset the apple cart. An overabundance of n-3’s can shut the immune system down for lack of guidance by the n-6 inflammation directors. On the other hand, BodyBio Balance Oil is a blend of organic, cold-pressed sunflower and flaxseed oils that are purposely geared to supply a 4 to 1 ratio of fatty acids that the body needs to initiate the cascade to longer chain fats that present vibrant physiological activity. Just the anti-inflammatory properties of the mother fatty acids, linoleic from sunflower and alpha-linolenic from flax, are enough to warrant using the oils to bolster the body’s well-being and to work out some metabolic kinks. Used to make salad dressings or to dress vegetables in place of butter, Balance Oil has the potential to set straight that which is awry, and the essential fatty acid metabolites can help to clear the brain fog on a hazy day. Cerebral lipids, especially the long-chain fatty acids, have significant direct and indirect activity on cerebral function. Not only do they affect the membranes, but also many are converted to neurally active substances. There is good evidence that mental challenges are related to EFA depletion, the supplementation of which can ameliorate the most defiant state of affairs.

References

Auestad N, Scott DT, Janowsky JS, Jacobsen C, Carroll RE, Montalto MB, Halter R, Qiu W, et al
Visual, cognitive, and language assessments at 39 months: a follow-up study of children fed formulas containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to 1 year of age.
Pediatrics. 2003 Sep;112(3 Pt 1):e177-83.

Bassett CM, McCullough RS, Edel AL, Patenaude A, LaVallee RK, Pierce GN.
The α-linolenic acid content of flaxseed can prevent the atherogenic effects of dietary trans fat.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011 Dec;301(6):H2220-6. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00958.2010. Epub 2011 Sep 30.

Caramia G.
The essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3: from their discovery to their use in therapy.
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Chang CS, Sun HL, Lii CK, Chen HW, Chen PY, Liu KL.
Gamma-Linolenic Acid Inhibits Inflammatory Responses by Regulating NF-kappaB and AP-1 Activation in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW 264.7 Macrophages.
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Darios F, Davletov B.
Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids stimulate cell membrane expansion by acting on syntaxin 3.
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da Rocha CM, Kac G.
High dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated acids during pregnancy and prevalence of post-partum depression.
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Dupasquier CM, Dibrov E, Kneesh AL, Cheung PK, Lee KG, Alexander HK, Yeganeh BK, Moghadasian MH, Pierce GN.
Dietary flaxseed inhibits atherosclerosis in the LDL receptor-deficient mouse in part through antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory actions.
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