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Diet Soda is Not A Free Ride

diet soda & weight gainThere is little doubt that obesity in America is on the upswing. Lots of people think that an artificially-sweetened beverage can offset the poor dietary decisions to which they have become accustomed. There has been established a relationship between non-sugar sweeteners and weight gain based on physiological responses to the message of satiety and the perceived need to consume more calories to achieve it. While the perception of sweet taste is supposed to satisfy appetite, the calculated deception to the body just might boomerang and call off all bets.

In the San Antonio Heart Study that ran from 1979 to 1988, researchers examined the association of artificially sweetened beverages with long-term weight gain, and found that, “A significant positive dose-response relationship emerged between baseline ASB (artificially sweetened beverage) consumption and all outcome measures…”  These outcome measures included overweight / obesity, weight gain, and changes in body mass index (BMI).  As with most nutrition research, considerations were made for demographics and behavioral characteristics.  Drinking more than twenty-one ASB’s a week had the most impact, with “…almost double risk of overweight / obesity among 1,250 baseline normal-weight individuals.”  For those with a body mass index already elevated, the changes were more pronounced.  This report concluded with, “These findings raise the question whether AS (artificial sweetener) use might be fueling—rather than fighting—our escalating obesity epidemic.”

That last sentence from the San Antonio Heart Study is quite the incrimination, would you say?
Diet soft drinks have long been thought to be healthier alternatives to their sugary counterparts, but reports like this one have linked increased incidence of weight gain, metabolic syndrome, and even diabetes to frequent intake of diet soft drinks.  Keep in mind, though, that all studies in all areas of health care are subject to scrutiny and critique.    Regardless of the topic, there are always two—or more—sides.  But here it may have been discovered that fooling the body is the instigator behind the concern.

When the body is told that something sweet has been ingested, it launches the production of insulin to carry the sweet to the cells to be burned for energy.  By the time the body finds out that there really is no sugar to be burned—in the form of glucose—the insulin has already been sent on its way to work.  Now the insulin has to find something to do, so it initiates a signal that says, “Feed me.  I need to carry glucose.”  That arouses hunger.  What do we grab for immediate satisfaction?  Carbohydrates, the simpler, the better.  Most of them spike glucose rapidly, which, if it fails to get burned for energy, is stored as fat.  It now appears that a lack of exercise becomes part of the equation.

There’s another tack to look at.  Some artificial sweeteners are alleged to block the brain’s production of serotonin, the neurotransmitter that controls mood, learning, sleep, and…appetite.  When the body experiences low levels of serotonin—and that can affect depressed mood—it seeks foods that can bring the levels back up.   Those foods happen to be the ones that will also bring the belt size up. Real sugar, of course, provides empty calories that can also cause weight gain as excessive energy intake.  But a weight conscious public does what it thinks is right.

Sweet taste enhances appetite.  Aspartame-sweetened water, for example, increased subjective hunger ratings when compared to glucose-sweetened water.  (Yang. 2010)  Other artificial sweeteners were associated with heightened motivation to eat, with more items selected on a food preference list. (Blundell. 1986)  This suggests that the calories in natural sweeteners trigger a response to keep overall energy intake constant, and that inconsistent coupling between sweet taste and actual caloric content can lead to compensatory overeating and consequential positive energy balance.  (This means that more energy came into the body than went out.)  People associate taste with calorie content.  You can tell that a crème brulee has more calories than the eggs from which it is made, but you’d probably eat more of it if made with artificial sweetener than with cane sugar.

Humans have a hedonic component.  We like those things that appeal to the senses and activate our food reward pathways.  That contributes to appetite increase.  But artificial sweeteners fail to provide completeness.  Unsweetening the American diet over the long haul, a little at a time, might just do the trick.  After all, it seems to work with salt.

References

MAIN ABSTRACT
Obesity (2008) 16(8), 1894–1900.
Fueling the Obesity Epidemic? Artificially Sweetened Beverage Use and Long-term Weight Gain Sharon P. Fowler, Ken Williams, Roy G. Resendez, Kelly J. Hunt, Helen P. Hazuda and Michael P. Stern

SUPPORTING ABSTRACTS
Diabetes Care. 2009 Apr;32(4):688-94. Epub 2009 Jan 16.
Diet soda intake and risk of incident metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Nettleton JA, Lutsey PL, Wang Y, Lima JA, Michos ED, Jacobs DR Jr.
SourceDivision of Epidemiology, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, Houston, Texas, USA. [email protected]

Physiol Behav. 2010 Apr 26;100(1):55-62. Epub 2010 Jan 6.
High-intensity sweeteners and energy balance.
Swithers SE, Martin AA, Davidson TL.

SourceDepartment of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, 703 Third Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, United States. [email protected]

Yale J Biol Med. 2010 June; 83(2): 101–108.
Gain weight by “going diet?” Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings
Neuroscience 2010
Qing Yang

The Lancet, Volume 327, Issue 8489, 10 May 1986, Pages 1092-1093
PARADOXICAL EFFECTS OF AN INTENSE SWEETENER (ASPARTAME) ON APPETITE J. E. Blundell, A. J. Hill

*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

Electrolytes and Sugar(s): Stuff You Need To Know

sports-drinkAlthough we are admonished not to mix electrolytes with sugars, we do it anyway. Most of the time it’s isn’t “we”, the consumer; it’s “we”, the marketer. The soda industry wouldn’t sell much product if it weren’t sweet. Plain carbonated lemon juice, cola syrup or turkey gravy just wouldn’t cut it. Even Ragu contains sugar, but thank goodness it isn’t fizzy. Sugar has no place in an electrolyte replacement beverage.

A few electrolyte drinks aimed at professional athletes contain some kind of sugar. The only purpose served by the sweetener is to add palatability. It does absolutely nothing—nada, zilch, zero—for bioavailability and efficacy of the electrolyte minerals. But it sure turns the coach into fly food after a win.

Tests at the University of Nebraska found that fructose increases fecal excretion of minerals, mostly iron and magnesium, but other electrolyte balances are likewise negatively affected (Ivatur, 1986). Sucrose is not without guilt. Well, now, magnesium is an electrolyte, which is supposed to be accompanied by sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium, all of them working to initiate and to inhibit a muscle contraction. In the absence of such contractions you couldn’t pick up the ten dollars your brother owes you. Even more dramatic, your heart might not run on all its cylinders.

Calling sugar a carbohydrate on a food ingredient label is misleading, so labeling guidelines now call it what it is…sugar. Itself, sugar arrests the secretion of stomach acid so that processing of nutrients, including the electrolyte minerals, is stymied. Creating acid in the intestine, however, sugar can lower pH by as much as one or two units, and being logarithmic, represent a tenfold or twentyfold difference in acidity (Rosen, 1965) (Stephan, 1943). Sugar even increases the acidity that tumors find so hospitable to their growth and development (DiPette, 1986).

Many of us are deficient in magnesium, partly because of sugar consumption. Beverage choices are paramount in this affliction (Ballew, 2000), and sports drinks containing sugar elevate insulin as part of the metabolic process, thus increasing the renal excretion of magnesium (Djurhuus, 1995, 2000) and calcium (Hodgkinson, 1965).

Mineral absorption occurs at the juncture of the duodenum and the jejunum. Sugar increases an acidic environment at that point, where it interferes with the alkalinity that minerals enjoy for absorption. The acidity might help the utilization of sugar, but does little for the electrolytes (Daniel, 1986). Major uptake of potassium and sodium occurs at pH of 8.0, with the others close behind. Electrolytes quite possibly are still absorbed at less-than-ideal pH, but why take a chance?

References

Carol Ballew, PhD; Sarah Kuester, MS, RD; Cathleen Gillespie
Beverage Choices Affect Adequacy of Children’s Nutrient Intakes
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154:1148-1152

J A Blair, M L Lucas, and A J Matty
Acidification in the rat proximal jejunum.
J Physiol. 1975 February; 245(2): 333–350.

Daniel H, Rehner G.
Effect of metabolizable sugars on the mucosal surface pH of rat intestine.
J Nutr. 1986 May;116(5):768-77.

Donald J. DiPette, Kimberly A. Ward-Hartley, and Rakesh K. Jain
Effect of Glucose on Systemic Hemodynamics and Blood Flow Rate in Normal and
Tumor Tissues in Rats

CANCER RESEARCH 46, 6299-6304, December 1986

Dr. M.S. Djurhuus, P. Skøtt, O. Hother-Nielsen, N.A.H. Klitgaard, H. Beck-Nielsen
Insulin Increases Renal Magnesium Excretion: A Possible Cause of Magnesium Depletion in Hyperinsulinaemic States
Diabetic Medicine. Volume 12, Issue 8, pages 664–669, August 1995

S. Djurhuus
Hyperglycaemia enhances renal magnesium excretion in Type 1 diabetic patients
Scan Jou of Clin & Laboratory Investigation. 2000, Vol. 60, No. 5 , Pages 403-410 

Hodgkinson, A and Heaton FW
The effect of food ingestion on the urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium
Clinica Chimica Acta. Volume 11, Issue 4, April 1965, Pages 354-362

Holbrook JT, Smith JC Jr, Reiser S.
Dietary fructose or starch: effects on copper, zinc, iron, manganese, calcium, and magnesium balances in humans.
Am J Clin Nutr. 1989 Jun;49(6):1290-4.

Rao Venkata Krishna Ivatur
Mineral bioutilization as affected by sugars
ETD collection for University of Nebraska – Lincoln.(January 1, 1986). Paper AAI862953

Ivaturi R, Kies C.
Mineral balances in humans as affected by fructose, high fructose corn syrup and sucrose.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1992 Apr;42(2):143-51.

Rosen S, Weisenstein PR.
The effect of sugar solutions on pH of dental plaques from caries-susceptible and caries-free individuals.
J Dent Res. 1965 Sep-Oct;44(5):845-9.

Stephan RM, Miller BF.
A quantitative method for evaluating physical and chemical agents which modify production of acids in bacterial plaques on human teeth.
J Dent Res. 1943;22;45-51.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

Pickle Juice

Jar of Cucumber PicklesThink fast: What was the biggest news in sports nutrition last summer? Answer: Pickle juice! Professional football trainers for a few NFL teams had their players chugging pickle juice in an effort to rapidly hydrate them. An interesting concept to say the least, but is pickle juice really the best way to hydrate the body when it has been depleted of valuable electrolytes?

Pickle juice is basically acetic acid (vinegar) and water with a bit of salt (sodium chloride) to give it some flavor. All muscle cells, like the heart, use sodium (Na) to close or contract the cell, and potassium (K) to relax the cell. Calcium (Ca) starts the closing process with Na doing the actual closing; magnesium (Mg) starts the reverse side of the pump—relaxing. Potassium (K) is the key element responsible for managing the relaxing process within the cell. In order for the human body to function properly under physical stress, all 4 of the mineral electrolytes (sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium) are absolutely required. If they are not replaced, you wind up with a cramp, or arrhythmia. Both are alleviated with K and Mg if you can catch it in time. Prolonged effects of improper replenishment can result in serious injury or death.

Vinegar is used to remove sodium from the body, so drinking pickle juice will, in a way, tend to help balance the lack of K and low Mg (the back side of the beat). Generally we get too much sodium from processed foods like snacks, chips, etc. For over 20 years our team at BodyBio (makers of ElyteSport) have been teaching doctors to use vinegar for high blood pressure because of its ability of acetic acid to lower Na levels. The vast majority of the medical world uses a calcium blocker to control (lower) the timing of the pump. Block the Ca and you lower the beat count. In actuality you block some of the heart cells from performing. Not the preferred route. It would be far better to add in the desperately needed potassium and magnesium rather than lower Ca or Na.

There is also an added benefit to having plenty of K and MG. Quite simply, you increase endurance. One of the principle reasons for fading under stress is that you run out of K and MG. The body has a marvelous ability to conserve Na, but doesn’t do the same with K or Mg. In addition you may need some nutrients, even a bit of sugar to keep you up, but the real key lies in the supply of electrolytes. We will all fade out sooner or later, but those on ElyteSport have the edge. In essence it’s an electrolyte numbers game. Check out the comparison chart at elytesport.com. There is no other product on the market that comes close to replenishing electrolytes like ElyteSport. Keep the pickle juice in the pickle jar and reach for ElyteSport when you need serious electrolyte replenishment!

Don’t hesitate to give me a call or send me an email if you have any questions about hydration or ElyteSport.

More:
The E-Lyte Story: Why You Need Electrolytes!
Sugar Free Electrolytes
Compare E-Lyte Sport with other “Sports” drinks
Pickle Juice
Taking A Peek Inside a Muscle Cramp
Night Cramps
ElyteSport Preloading

Other References:
References depicting the difficulty within the Medical Community to Resolve “Cramping”


The information contained in this web site is for educational purposes only and is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Inclusion here does not imply any endorsement or recommendation. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified medical provider for all medical problems prior to starting any new regiment.

These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

Sugar Free Electrolytes

The body has a high storage capacity for fats (lipids), but a rather meager ability to store glucose. The effort to build up a reservoir of sugar of any kind, ends up, in a healthy individual, as triglycerides or fats, the principle form of energy. In effect, carbohydrate loading makes you fat momentarily, at least, until your next workout.

ElyteSport is a highly concentrated electrolyte drink, higher than any on the market. E-Lyte is used to replenish or rebalance those that are severely electrolyte depleted. Giving a sick patient a sugary drink is never an option. To resuscitate someone after trauma calls for an IV of electrolytes, not an IV of glucose.

ElyteSport electrolytes assimilate at an amazing rate throughout the body, while complex carbs must travel through the liver for conversion, then out into the blood stream to find their way to every cell, and finally locate a glucose receptor to take them in. The two take totally different pathways and are totally different in function. Electrolytes make everything metabolically possible and are absorbed lightning fast. Taking them separately, just 5 or 10 seconds apart, would be enough if the electrolytes were consumed first.

Normally you do not salt sugary foods. Electrolytes are salts and salt goes with meat and potatoes, soups, vegetables, etc. All animals seek a salt source to lick when they feel the need. Electrolytes are put in water for livestock, especially for race horses. Can you put sugary stuff and electrolytes together? I suppose you could but we do not suggest it.

Reaching for high performance however, requires both, electrolytes and glucose. You need electrolytes for everything that happens in the body, all the time. Glucose is needed after you run out of your stores of glycogen, which occurs about an hour or so after you start your workout.

There are those who propose that sweeteners encourage you to drink, to ensure hydration. If you run short of fluids and the fluids are available, there are few that will need drinking instruction. The biotech sophistication of the body is far beyond our current understanding. The only argument that has relevance is, can the athlete carry both while working out and reach both when they need to, which cyclists and runners or any long distance performers have to consider.

The market for drink products is huge, far greater than that used by high performing athletes. And that huge public is where the real market is. There is no way the general public would go for a salty flavored drink. However, they are all watching you, the performers, and copy what you say and do. But it is sill unlikely they would buy anything that wasn’t sweetened. It’s a great big Coca Cola, Pepsi, Gatorade world. ElyteSport is a breath of fresh air in the area of sports medicine with a totally new look at function first and marketing second. For all of you who are after performance, ElyteSport is the only way to go.

Can you take ElyteSport and complex carbs. Sure, just separate them momentarily. That way you can determine what the body wants when it wants it. The body really knows. All you need to do is listen.

More:
The E-Lyte Story: Why You Need Electrolytes!
Sugar Free Electrolytes
Compare E-Lyte Sport with other “Sports” drinks
Pickle Juice
Taking A Peek Inside a Muscle Cramp
Night Cramps
ElyteSport Preloading

Other References:
References depicting the difficulty within the Medical Community to Resolve “Cramping”


The information contained in this web site is for educational purposes only and is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Inclusion here does not imply any endorsement or recommendation. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified medical provider for all medical problems prior to starting any new regiment.

These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

ElyteSport Preloading

Most of us are familiar with carbohydrate loading as an effort to pack as much food and energy before an athletic event. It can start one or two days before a race. It’s not known whether it’s good science or done for the sheer joy of eating. However, the body does not have an efficient means of storing carbs. Eating a high carbohydrate meal raises blood sugar levels which stimulates the pancreas to produce insulin to drive the sugar into the cells to be either burned or converted and stored as triglycerides (fat). Those reserve fats are then burned for energy as needed. In 1995 Barry Sears stimulated a bit of controversy with his “Zone Diet” book and poked a hole in the theory of carb loading by proving that a 30/30/40, (protein/fat/carb) diet improved performance. In 1986 Stu Mittleman set a world record for the 1000-Mile Run, covering the distance in 11 days, and he did it with practically no carbs. His book “Slow Burn” details his low carb — high fat concept. Stu says you can’t do it with carbs. The body burns fat far more efficiently than carbohydrates.

ElyteSport loading, however, is an interesting idea that can be quite effective. It works so well that it could even be a breakthrough in athletic performance. The technique is similar to carb loading but it’s done with electrolytes using ElyteSport concentrate. The goal is to condition the cells and the blood stream to maintain a higher level of electrolytes, which can be called on later to maintain a higher activity level for a longer period of time.

All performance is dependent on the 4 alkaline minerals, Na, K, Mg, and Ca, along with the anions, Chlorides, Phosphates, Sulphates, and Bicarbs. We know that a long athletic event or even a hard workout will deplete the electrolytes. You can taste the salts running down your nose as you perspire. What is generally not known is just how valuable they are. Without them, nothing moves. Absolutely nothing. You can not blink or think without electrolytes.

The technique is to use the concentrate straight (not diluted) just before you train or before the big event. ElyteSport is a concentrated electrolyte solution and is normally diluted at 16:1 with H2O. One liter makes over 4 gallons of drinkable solution. Pre-loading (drinking it straight) is more than a bit strong, but then so is a shot of booze. However, if done just prior to an event, ElyteSport concentrate will raise the level of electrolytes in the cells and provide a reservoir for greater endurance. That means you can drink H2O along the way without concern because you have pre-loaded with a high concentration of those vital electrolytes using ElyteSport which does not contain any sugar. Incidentally, you do not need sugar and a spiked insulin load at the starting gate. That’s a drain (stress) on performance. However, you could use some sugar about 45 minutes to 1 hour afterwards when you run out of glycogen, which is the glucose storage hormone. Carry a protein bar and nibble. They usually have plenty of carbs and will do the job at the exact time you need it with no strain on the system.

The technique for electrolyte loading is to pour about 2 ozs of concentrate in a glass and sip a small amount about 1 tbsp. (yes, it is strong stuff), followed immediately with a drink of diluted ElyteSport or plain H2O, about as much as you need to dispel the strong flavor — like a chaser. The idea is to finish the 2 ozs of concentrate with about a pint or less of diluted ElyteSport close to the time of your workout, ideally within 10 minutes. The high concentration (small amount of H2O) will permit a buildup of electrolytes with the potassium stored in the cells and the sodium in the blood stream.

You can then drink as much H2O as you need immediately before your event. The idea is to be out of the starting gate before the body and its marvelous kidney control system reacts to the high mineral concentration and dumps the high potassium, magnesium, phosphates, etc. into the bladder. As soon as you start running or cycling or whatever, the kidneys conserve everything (H2O and electrolytes); very little is dumped into the bladder at that time, so your pre-loaded electrolytes will be effectively stored and available later.

The high concentration of electrolytes in a balanced format should permit you to train and perform to a higher level. We hear this over and over. “ElyteSport permits me to train or run or cycle longer at a higher rate”. This technique can also be used to enhance performance at work or even study or play since the transmission of thought requires the same electrolyte activity to run the brain and the nervous system. (Where was this idea when I took my exams ?). The folks at E-Lyte also use this if they partied a bit too much the night before. So the idea is extremely versatile.

One more thing — and this is critical. “No more cramps”. In case you missed that I’ll say it again. “No more cramps”. ElyteSport is almost a secret weapon in the world of cramping athletes. Read “Taking a Peek Inside a Cramp

There is little risk associated with drinking the concentrated solution as is (undiluted) as long as it does not exceed 2-4 oz and you don’t repeat it along the way unless you have an ample supply of H2O. You should only drink the concentrate ONE time at the start of the race. Once you start you will need to re-hydrate with water or diluted ElyteSport along the way. It has been used with children for over 20 years and even given to a child of 3 to help with temperature control.

Caution: Do not attempt to pre-load if you have had any kidney difficulties such as a high BUN or Creatinine levels. Please consult your Health Care Professional before attempting to self-administer any supplement to enhance performance.

More:
The E-Lyte Story: Why You Need Electrolytes!
Sugar Free Electrolytes
Compare E-Lyte Sport with other “Sports” drinks
Pickle Juice
Taking A Peek Inside a Muscle Cramp
Night Cramps
ElyteSport Preloading

Other References:
References depicting the difficulty within the Medical Community to Resolve “Cramping”


The information contained in this web site is for educational purposes only and is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Inclusion here does not imply any endorsement or recommendation. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified medical provider for all medical problems prior to starting any new regiment.

These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

The Unusual Development of E-Lyte Balanced Electrolyte

ringers-elyteThe formulation of E-Lyte Balanced Electrolyte began 25 years ago for the purpose of creating a drinking version of Ringer’s Solution. In effect, a diluted solution of E-Lyte (normally 16:1) could be used as an oral replacement in stressful health situations if IV Ringer’s was not available. IV Ringer’s also involves inserting a needle into the vein and dripping in an IV solution of the contents, water and electrolytes. In general, medical emergency care in hospitals world wide usually involve electrolyte replacement. Both Ringer’s and E-Lyte have equal mille equivalents (similar electrolyte concentrations) of the all important electrolytes. However, the production of IV Ringer’s solution is a pharmaceutical product regulated by the FDA. In critical situations, IV Ringer’s may be the only way to get the necessary fluids back into a patient, however it requires the experienced care of a professional to carefully insert that needle. If the individual can drink fluids, E-Lyte is a perfect substitute and has been used by many physicians for over 20 years with the same excellent results, even within a hospital environment. If the need was to arise ElyteSport could also qualify for the same critical applications.

Essentially, both E-Lyte formulas and Ringer’s have the ability to stabilize individuals with mild or severe electrolyte deficiencies. There are many drinks that are sold under the guise of containing electrolytes. However the concentration of electrolytes is far below the formula of E-Lyte , or ElyteSport, both of which are also Sugar-Free. Just imagine the use of a sugary drink such as Gatorade, or Pepsi, or even Coke, which do contain electrolytes, being used in a critical life threatening situation. We could not imagine a doctor prescribing any of those, or even considering it.


Reference:
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Dec;17(4):623-51
Diagnosis and management of electrolyte emergencies
Weiss-Guillet EM, Takala J , Jakob SM.
Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Inselpital, University Hospital Bern, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland.

Electrolyte and fluid imbalances are disorders frequently observed in critical care patients. In many instances patients are asymptomatic, but they may also present with neurological alterations, severe muscle weakness, nausea and vomiting or cardiovascular emergencies. Therefore, a pathophysiological understanding of these disorders is necessary for initiating an appropriate therapy. After a precise history-including drug prescriptions-has been obtained from the patient or his/her relatives, determination of the hydration status of the patient and measurement of acid-base status, plasma and urine osmolality and electrolytes are the first steps in the assessment of the disease. Once a diagnosis has been established, great attention has to be paid to the rate at which the disorder is corrected because this-if inappropriate-may cause more severe damage to the patient than the disease itself. This chapter addresses the initial diagnostic and therapeutic steps of the most common electrolyte emergencies.

More:
The E-Lyte Story: Why You Need Electrolytes!
Sugar Free Electrolytes
Compare E-Lyte Sport with other “Sports” drinks
Pickle Juice
Taking A Peek Inside a Muscle Cramp
Night Cramps
ElyteSport Preloading

Other References:
References depicting the difficulty within the Medical Community to Resolve “Cramping”


The information contained in this web site is for educational purposes only and is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Inclusion here does not imply any endorsement or recommendation. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified medical provider for all medical problems prior to starting any new regiment.

These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.